Essay Title: 

Ancient History

March 19, 2016 | Author: | Posted in religion and theology

ANCIENT HISTORY

The Three s . Society in medieval Europe consisted of the nobles the clergy , and the peasantry . Noblemen were the class of warriors whose function was to fight to protect the other two s . The clergy played the role of a mediator between God and laity and one of its main functions was to hold society together . The peasantry formed the largest group and its task was to work for the other two s to support them Advances in agriculture contributed to an increase in population growth and trade which led [banner_entry_middle]

to the growth of cities . Townsmen started to form alliances with the kings in their fight against the landed nobility and forced the mighty nobility into decline . City dwellers also criticized the church for its special immunities and interference in secular matters which gave rise to movements like those of Franciscans or Dominicans . These s advocated humility , modesty , and poverty among clergymen and emphasized the importance of living according to the holy gospel (The West in The World : Perfected : High Middle Ages

The Three Religions of the West . Christianity began within the Jewish religion among those who followed Jesus Christ but later it gradually separated from Rabbinical Judaism . Islam began in Arabia in the VII century with the emergence of Muhammad . The Christian Church divided into Latin-speaking west (with its centre in Rome ) and the Greek-speaking east (with its centre in Constantinople . The Nicene Creed describing the beliefs of Eastern and Western Christians was ratified in 431 . However , Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians disagree about the Filioque clause that was included later by the Western Church . Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians believe that God is one single eternal being who exists as three distinct and invisible persons : Father , Son (Jesus , and Holy Spirit . The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God . Both Christians and Muslims believe in the Day of Judgment , life after death , heaven , and hell (Christianity , Islam

The Papacy . Charlemagne was the defender and at the same time subjugator of the Church and the pope was nothing more than his powerful vassal Since that time , European monarchies tried to control the Church and imposed their will on the papal elections . However , after Innocent III popes

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became political leaders with powers and demanded that there be no secular interference in the nomination of bishops or popes . They also had the right to excommunicate , crown or depose kings (Gilbert Church and State : the Medieval Papacy and the Balance of Power . The popes intervention in secular affairs was justified by the Bull Unam Sanctum (1302 . According to the Bull , spiritual power surpasses in dignity and in nobility any terrestrial power and therefore it belongs to spiritual power to establish the terrestrial power . As a result , all human beings , for their own salvation , are subject to the Roman Pontiff (Unam Sanctum

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Christianity . April , 18 2006

Gilbert , Jim . Church and State : the Medieval Papacy and the Balance of Power . April , 18 2006

Islam… [banner_entry_footer]

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