Essay Title: 

Answer the following Exam Revision Questions

March 20, 2016 | Author: | Posted in alternative medicine, health and medicine

The present essay argues the statement , The language system is characterised by a uni-directional (or feed-forward ) flow of activation ‘ The concept of activation is essential in all the types of language models . This is a quantity that varies continuously and spreads from one language unit or level in a network . According to a feed-forward hypothesis in regard to the language system , information flows run only in one direction (bottom-up or input-output ) adjusting the system at the periphery to react more effectively to forthcoming instructions . Several empirical findings challenge this claim

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, in regard to speech production , the series of experiments by Marslen-Wilson and Warren (1994 ) showed that phonemes may be classified before the activation of lexical units can begin (they would have been classified afterwards , if only feed-forward activation has existed . For example , if we take a word smog ‘ and a nonword smod ‘ and change the final consonant , the version made from the word is rejected not so readily as the one made from the nonword . It happens because the coarticulation information from the vowel (being activated at the same phonetic level ) corresponds to the whole perception of a word . The feed-forward hypothesis predicts that the phonetic representation of the vowel has to be translated into a phoneme before lexical access However , then the coarticulation information would have been lost and the two types of nonword would have been equally difficult to reject

To add , some computational models of spoken word production based on strictly feed-forward spread of activation (e .g , WEAVER – Levelt Roelofs Meyer , 1999 Roelofs , 1992 , 1997 , 2003 ) predict that speech production is a staged process when a speaker has to search for useful concepts , assess the store of lemmas and to proceed to word-form encoding when planning to speak . In comprehension the listener goes from forms to lemmas and concepts . The same scope of concepts and lemmas is used in both production and comprehension , whereas there are separate input and output stores of word forms for these tasks

However , mixed semantic-phonological speech errors (e .g , the word-substitution , `calf ‘ for `cat word-blends , `close `near `clear ) in cases of both aphasic and nonaphasic speakers (Dell Reich 1981 Martin , Gagnon , Schwartz , Dell Saffran , 1996 , as well as the reduced latency effect of mixed distractors in picture naming (Damian Martin , 1999 Starreveld La Heij , 1996 ) speak for existence of feedforward and feedback flows of activation within one interactive models . The latter case is revealed in the situation , when an individual is presented to the picture of a cat with the task to name it . At the same time (s )he hears mixed semantic-phonological distractor words (e .g , the phonologically and semantically related spoken word CALF and the semantically related distractor DOG . The person would rather choose the first word

Normally the lexical unit corresponding to the target is activated and activation spreads to the appropriate phonological units in a feed-forward manner . Simultaneously , the phonological units are activated back down to the lexical level to ensure that the activated lexical units corresponding… [banner_entry_footer]

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