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Anything related in some way to the management of homeland security, disaster planning, or emergency management.

March 20, 2016 | Author: | Posted in criminology, law

Emergency Management

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Every year , hundreds of natural disasters occur in the United States Governmental institutions are called on to respond in virtually every case . The vast majority of these emergencies are handled at the local level , with only minimal involvement from state or federal governments At times , however , higher levels of government play a prominent role in the disaster-assistance process . And there are some rare situations in which the federal government alone seems to be the focal point for all response and recovery activities . Thus the [banner_entry_middle]

scope and nature of governmental activity vary greatly from one disaster to the next Nevertheless , all governmental disaster-relief policies are supposedly guided by a single , overarching structure

The United States has an ongoing system intended to guide the governmental response to all natural disasters . The process works from the “bottom up ” It begins at the local level and follows a series of prespecified steps up through the state and ultimately to the national government . Local , state , and national governments are supposed to share their emergency management responsibilities (May and Williams , 1996 The higher levels of government are not intended to supersede or replace the activities of the lower levels . All three levels of government are supposed to develop coordinated , integrated emergency management procedures , and they should all participate in the process of implementing disaster-relief policies

Municipal and county governments are the first link in the chain of the formal structure of the governmental response (Popkin , 2000 . Their job is to deal with emergencies that occur within their jurisdictions . The basic assumption is that disaster response will be handled primarily by local law enforcement agencies and related organizations (e .g ambulance services or civil defense coordinators . But natural disasters place exceptionally large burdens on these local officials they are usually forced to look elsewhere for guidance and assistance with their response procedures

In most instances , this outside assistance comes from the state and federal governments , which can provide disaster preparedness funds to local units . In doing so , most states require (or at least encourage towns , cities , and counties to establish and support local emergency preparedness agencies (Mushkatel and Weschler , 1995 . This requirement is intended to impose some degree of regularity and structure on the first line of defense against natural disasters

Emergency preparedness agencies are supposed to make sure that local communities are ready for disaster situations . Their most tangible product is a plan identifying the duties and responsibilities of all local officials during emergency situations . These plans are prepared by local officials to meet the needs , conditions , and situations of particular areas , but they also usually conform to certain guidelines imposed by the state and federal governments . After all , higher governmental levels often provide money and technical advice to help local officials prepare and maintain their emergency management plans Rubin , Saperstein , and Barbee , 1995 . In return , they expect local governments to establish basic emergency preparedness and response procedures . Consequently , most local-level plans describe how citizens will be alerted to or… [banner_entry_footer]

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