Aspects of Psychology
Aspects of Psychology
Psychology as a science is relatively young , much younger than physics chemistry , and some branches of biology . A worldwide survey at the present time would reveal psychologists working in almost every land along a great variety of lines . Some are concerned with learning perception , thinking , motivation , and other such functions in men and animals . A number of psychologists are using tests for the study of individual and group differences . Developmental psychologists are investigating child development . Social psychologists are working on social problems and some on problems that lie [banner_entry_middle]
close to physiology . Some are applying psychology to education , some to industry . Such specialties might very well be called schools . Each school explores intensively in its chosen direction and makes concrete discoveries , which enlarge the boundaries of the known territory of psychology . Structural psychology centers in sensation , Gestalt psychology in perception , associations in learning and memory , psychoanalysis in desire , behaviorism in motor activity . Personalism and organismic psychology focus on the individual as a whole . So many psychologists of varied interests tacitly accept functionalism that perhaps it should not be counted among the schools (Robert S . Woodworth , 1948
Intelligence is distinct as a psychobiological potential to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in at least one cultural context (Nicholas M . Allix , 2000 . Successful intelligence is the ability to achieve success by one ‘s own standards , given one ‘s socio-cultural context . There is no small and delimited set of abilities (e .g , general intelligence in Spearman ‘s theory or eight multiple intelligences in Gardner ‘s theory ) that can adequately predict who will be successful and who will not be (Murphy , Pirozzolo , 2002
Presently , theories of intelligence are divided into two camps : the psychometric and multiple intelligences approaches . One of the other most influential figures in the early history of IQ testing was Charles Spearman . Charles Spearman argued that intelligence is based on one factor known as general intelligence , or simply g . He also developed factor analysis , a statistical tool that has uncovered correlations among people ‘s performance on groups of test items this suggests that g underlies groups of specific abilities , as outlined in Spearman ‘s two-factor theory of intelligence . According to Spearman ‘s theory intelligence tests should measure intelligence without becoming clouded by specific abilities . The best such test is Raven ‘s Progressive Matrices , which consists of a series of abstract patterns with one piece missing . Howard Gardner , proponent of the multiple intelligences approach , believes that intelligence consists of several constructs
Spearman did not himself devise new tests : his influence rested entirely on his development of a precursor of modern factor analysis , which he used to advance a theory of the structure of human intelligence as measured by IQ tests . According to Spearman (1927 , the most important component of general intelligence was the ability to see relationships between objects , events , or ideas , and to draw inferences from those relationships . He later added the further criterion that intelligence involved the ability to think in abstract rather than in… [banner_entry_footer]
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