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Burrhus Frederic `B. F.` Skinner theory on learned behavior

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in environmental issues, nature

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Burrhus Frederic `B . F . ` Skinner Theory on Learned Behavior

Introduction

This seeks to analyze the discuss Skinner ‘s theory on learned behavior and conducted experiments and the corresponding results , if any in relation to said theory

Analysis and Discussion

Skinner ‘s theory on learned behavior is basically based on the concept of behaviorism , which seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of experiencing consequences . In his works he proposed the widespread use of [banner_entry_middle]

psychological behavior modification techniques , primarily operant conditioning , in to improve society and increase human happiness and as a form of social engineering

He conducted research on shaping behavior through positive and negative reinforcement and demonstrated operant conditioning , a behavior modification technique which he developed in contrast with classical conditioning

Operant conditioning is defined as the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior ‘ and is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that the former deals with the modification of voluntary behavior through the use of consequences , while Pavlovian conditioning deals with the conditioning of behavior so that it occurs under new antecedent conditions . It is sometimes called instrumental conditioning or instrumental learning and was first extensively studied by Edward L . Thorndike (1874-1949 , who observed the behavior of cats trying to escape from home-made puzzle boxes . Thorndike then had his Law of Effect , where he theorized that successful responses , those producing satisfying consequences , were “stamped in ” by the experience and thus occurred more frequently and that unsuccessful responses , those producing annoying consequences , were stamped out and subsequently occurred less frequently . Thorndike found that some consequences strengthened behavior and some consequences weakened behavior . Skinner conducted further studies and used Thorndike ‘s ideas to construct a more detailed theory of operant conditioning based on reinforcement punishment , and extinction

The work of Hall , Lindzey and Campbell explained also Skinner ‘s operant conditioning saying that the strength of one ‘s responses of several responses occurs when followed by responses . The authors said that this is where the use of `operant ‘ comes in as they defined an operant as a response that operates on the environment and changes it They said , The change in environment affects the subsequent occurrence of the response . In operant conditioning therefore , the reinforcer is not associated with eliciting the stimulus as it is when the respondents are conditioned . Instead it is associated with the response . When a salivary response is conditioned to the sound of a bell , the presentation of the meat does not depend on the prior occurrence of the response . On the other hand when the operant responses are conditioned it is essential that the reinforcer be presented after the occurrence of the response . Only in this way does the frequency of the response increase

Skinner in effect made modification on Thorndike ‘s position in two key respects . First , it must be stated that Thorndike (1898 ) had summarized his position in terms of law of effect . Said states… [banner_entry_footer]

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