Essay Title: 

cape verde

March 23, 2016 | Author: | Posted in modern technologies, technology

Cape Verde

September 4 , 2006

Table of Contents

Page

Figure 1 5 Introduction 3 Cape Verde ‘s Geography 3

Demographic Pro of Cape Verde 5

History 5

Politics 9 The Government 9 Foreign relations of Cape Verde 10 U .S .-Cape Verdean Relations 10

Economy 11

Culture and Music 12 The Music 13 Literature 13

New Development 14

Conclusion 14

REFERENCES 16

Introduction

The unforgiving seas and the fierce wind of the Atlantic Ocean are the factors that [banner_entry_middle]

allowed the early seafarers and conquerors of the new world to seek shelter in the island fortress of Cabo Verde–a Portuguese name of the present Cape Verde ‘s Republic . European ambition of finding a route to the east and monopolizing the spicy trade lead to the discovery of Cape Verde . The island ‘s strategic location became a converging point of development ‘ coming from Europe to the East (Asia , Americas and vice versa . The country is near the major north-south sea routes being located at 500 kilometers from the west coast of Africa thus , it serves an important communications stations as well as a sea refueling site

This research will examine Cape Verde ‘s history , geography politics , economy , and culture and how these factors will affect her as a nation both in the present and in the future

Cape Verde ‘s Geography

The importance of geography spell out the differences in the attitude and culture of each state . The so-called geographical locations or surroundings dictate the kind of responses one particular country exhibit to various factors confronting it as well as molds its people to success or stagnation of which Cape Verde is the former

The islands composing the Cape Verde Republic are 620 kilometers or 385 miles off the West African coast or at 15 .02N , 23 .34W . The 10 islands and 5 islet ‘ composed the archipelago Republic of Cape Verde . These islands and islets are divided into two groups namely : the HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Barlavento ” \o “Barlavento ” Barlavento (windward ) and HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Sotavento ” \o “Sotavento ” Sotavento (leeward . Barlavento ‘s six islands are HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santo_Ant C3 A3o ” \o “Santo Antgo ” Santo Antgo , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /S C3 A3o_Vicente ” \o “Sgo Vicente ” Sgo Vicente , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santa_Luzia 2C_Cape_Verde ” \o “Santa Luzia , Cape Verde ” Santa Luzia , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /S C3 A3o_Nicolau ” \o “Sgo Nicolau ” Sgo Nicolau , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Sal 2C_Cape_Verde \o “Sal , Cape Verde ” Sal , and HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Boa_Vista 2C_Cape_Verde ” \o “Boa Vista Cape Verde ” Boa Vista and Sotavento ‘s groups are : HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Maio ” \o “Maio ” Maio , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santiago 2C_Cape_Verde ” \o “Santiago , Cape Verde ” Santiago , HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Fogo 2C_Cape_Verde ” \o “Fogo , Cape Verde Fogo , and HYPERLINK “http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Brava ” \o “Brava Brava . The entire islands are inhabited by people except the island of Santa Luzia . Figure 1 shows the geographic location of Cape Verde (Geography of Cape Verde , n .d

According to the Geography of Cape Verde (2006 , the island ‘s land area is 4 ,033 kilometers per square meter and it has 965 kilometers of coastline . Comparatively , the island is slightly larger than the US ‘s Rhode Island or of UK ‘s Suffolk . Cape Verde ‘s highest point is Mount Fogo , a volcano of the Fogo Island . The mountainous islands are characterized by jagged cliffs from the sea brought about by the massive soil erosions due to strong high winds , and the lack of natural vegetations of the uplands and the coastal areas . Though in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean , Cape Verde ‘s rainfall is highly erratic causing periodic droughts and famines ‘ In the capital town of Praia , the average rainfall is only 240 millimeters or 9 .5 inches

According to wikipedia .org , the famed Cape Verde-type hurricanes which is considered to be the most violent and destructive hurricanes are formed in the ocean near the island . Lobban (1995 ) states that by being an African republic of oceanic islands would be lush and moist but the Cape Verdean archipelago is better understood as a western extension of the [great] Sahara Desert ‘ Loban further states that the islands are extremely dry and have long been troubled by cycles of prolonged drought . The two-season weather cycle of this region is caused by the north-south movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ . The ITCZ is associated with hot , dry winters north of the zone and hot , wet summer weather to the south of the zone . The clashing weather fronts of the ITCZ in the region of Cape Verde also spawn hurricanes that regularly torment the Caribbean and the east coast of the United States in the late summer months

Finally , the country ‘s natural resources are : salt , basalt rock pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement limestone , kaolin (a clay mineral use for manufacturing of glossy and fish (Geography of Cape Verde , n .d

Figure 1 . Republic of Cape Verde ‘s Map

Demographic Pro of Cape Verde

The archipelago of Cape Verde was a not inhabited by man until the Portuguese discovered it in 1456 . The presence of the Portuguese plantations in the islands had resulted to the flow of African slaves to work on these plantations . Thus , the Cape Verdeans race is a mixture of African and European origins . The remnants of African culture are prominent on the HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Santiago_Island \o “Santiago Island ” \t “_blank ” Santiago Island , where 50 of the people live . The meager natural resources of the country forced Cape Verdeans to seek greener pasture in other countries . Only one-third of Cape Verdean ancestry is actually living on the islands and the rest can be found in the United States , mainly in New England , Portugal , the Netherlands , Italy , France , and Senegal ‘ Portuguese is the Cape Verde ‘s official language , but most Cape Verdeans speak a HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Creole ” \o “Creole ” Creole HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Dialect ” \o “dialect dialect — HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Crioulo ” \o “Crioulo ” Crioulo –which consists of archaic Portuguese modified through contact with African and other European languages . Cape Verde has a rich tradition of Crioulo literature and music (Demographics of Cape Verde , n .d

History

Any student of history has to go back to the past in to rightfully chart one ‘s future . In the case of a country , its history will offer many adventures and lessons proved to be useful in its quest for the future as in the case of Cape Verde

In 1995 , Richard Lobban Jr ‘s book entitled Cape Verde : Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation revealed the possibility that the Phoenicians Moorish Arabs , and Lebou fishermen from Senegal , but the first Portuguese sighting of the islands occurred in the mid-fifteenth century ‘ This possibility of sighting these various nationalities were made in July 1944 by Antunio da Noli Usodimare both Genoan or in May 1456 by a Venetian Cadamosto . These people were not Portuguese though they sail under its flag . [A]fter four more years , the Genoan brothers Antunio and Bartolomeu da Noli and the Portuguese Diogo Afonso and Diogo Gomes completed charting the Sotavento “southern “leeward Islands ‘ Lobban emphasizes that it was in 1460 as the date of first settlement because this is when Antunio da Noli was appointed capitgo “captain ) of Sgo Tiago Island (1995

Lobban (1995 ) went to tell that among the Barlavento “northern “windward ) Islands , the easternmost Boa Vista was [was given the distinction of having been first reached by] Da Noli and Gomes in 1460 and the remaining westerly islands of the Barlavento group were reached in 1461-1462 during the voyages of Diogo Afonso

Cape Verde according to Lobban ‘s (1995 ) scholarly research was set up as a plantation system like that of the neighboring island of Canaries and Madeiras . Sugarcane and cotton plantations were organized and slaves were given assignments to weave cotton , gather indigo , or do labor in the salt flats of Sal and Maio . Spinning , weaving , and dyeing cotton were the high valued skills of the Cape Verdean people in its early history . Lobban went to tell that the Wolof women slaves were highly regarded as spinners , and [the] Wolof men were the weavers , as was the custom among the Mande and Senegambian groups ‘ The six cloth strips of parallel design , as their produce , were sewn [into] a variety of pano or barafula “trade cloths these cloths were re-exported to the coast as a standard currency in slave trading

A Venetian named Cadamosto described the Wolof and Senegambian ‘s political structure together with their rituals and habits as both unusual and disgusting . The Cadamosto vivid and disgust to their rituals and habits lay the foundation of racism that later European adopted . In unprecedented move , the Portuguese crown established a rapport with their royalty in 1488 at Lisbon on the occasion of the latter ‘s visit . Though this was the scenario in Lisbon at that time , few Portuguese guards murdered some of these Wolof upon their return in Senegal for the fear of competition in commercial trade (Lobban , 1995

The Treaty of Alcacovas which demarcated specific domains for future trade and exploration between Spain and Portugal somehow spelled the future of the two countries and perhaps the re-discovery of some trade routes in the East . The treaty resulted to the Canary Island ‘s annexation to Spain while the Madeiras , the Azores , and the Cape Verde Islands still were under Portugal . As a result of the treaty , several explorations were undertaken by various explorers . One explorer by the name of Diego da Azambuja explored the West African coast trading gold etc (Lobban , 1995

The Cape Verde ‘s (Lobban , 1995 ) strategic location had served Portuguese crown as its regional command center . It dominates the West African maritime trade resulting to the extraction of ten of thousands of slaves , tons of ivory , and immeasurable quantities of gold , hides spices , woods , grain , and dyes ‘ The economic benefits derived from having Cape Verde as a regional command post , supported Portugal ‘s economy for the last one and half century

It was in the 16th century that Cape Verde experienced development because of the growth of the transatlantic slave . The new development in the islands has caused many problems like the occasional pirates attack and the 1712 French attack . The transatlantic slave trade ‘s decline had resulted to the economic downturn of Cape Verde along with the islands recurrent droughts and famines since the 18th century . Though this was the case , its importance to the new world is still intact by virtue of its position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes .an ideal location for resupplying ships . The islands ‘ importance in the transatlantic maritime trade was due to its excellent [natural] harbor , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mindelo ” \o “Mindelo ” Mindelo [located on the HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /S E3o_Vicente ” \o “Sgo Vicente Sgo Vicente Island which] became an important commercial center during the 19th century (History of Cape Verde , 2006 ? 2 3

The end of the Second World War had brought many political changes across the globe and Cape Verde was not an exception . In to satisfy the growing demand for nationalism and independence within Cape Verde , Portugal succumbed to the pressure and changed the colonial status of the of the islands to that of an overseas province in 1951 . It was in 1956 [that] HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Am EDlcar_Cabral ” \o “Amnlcar Cabral ” Amnlcar Cabral , a Cape Verdean , and HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Rafael_Barbosa ” \o “Rafael Barbosa ” \t “_blank ” Rafael Barbosa organized (in Guinea-Bissau ) the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Partido_Africano_da_Independ EAnci a_da_Guin E9_e_Cabo_Verde ” \o “Partido Africano da Independkncia da Guiny e Cabo Verde ” PAIGC , which demanded improvement in economic social , and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guinea ” \o “Guinea Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations ‘ independence movement ‘ The PAIGC ‘s head office was moved to Conakry , Guinea in 1960 , and a year later started its armed rebellion against Portugal . The rebellion escalated into a full fledge war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10 ,000 Soviet bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35 ,000 Portuguese and African troops (History of Cape Verde , n .d ? 4

In spite of the fact that there was a full scale war between the PAIGC and Portugal resulting to the control of almost all of Portuguese Guinea , and for logistical reasons , [it] did not attempt to disrupt [latter ‘s] control in Cape Verde ‘ The organization became an active political movement after the April of 1974 ‘s Portugal ‘s revolution . Both parties reached an agreement in December of ’74 for a transitional government composed of Portuguese and Cape Verdeans resulting to the election of the National Assembly on June 30 , 1975 , which received the instruments of independence from Portugal on July 5 , 1975

The successful 1980 coup in HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guinea-Bissau ” \o “Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau strained its relationships with Cape Verde and the latter abandoned all its hope for unification with the said country . The strained relations of the two resulted to the creation of the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV . The PAICV worked hard for normalizing the two countries strained relationship and was successful . As a result , the party and its predecessor established a one-party system [that] ruled Cape Verde from [its] independence until 1990 (History of Cape Verde , n .d ? 5

The one-party system in Cape Verde opened so many problems such as growing discontent among the population and the political instability Thus , responding to this growing political pressures the PAICV in an emergency congress in February 1990 called for a discussion focusing on the constitutional changes specifically , the end of one-party rule Cape Verdean opposition groups formed the the HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Movement_for_Democracy ” \o “Movement for Democracy ” Movement for Democracy (MpD ) in HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Praia ” \o “Praia ” Praia in April 1990 ‘ resulting to their rigorous campaign for the right to participate in the December 1990 scheduled presidential election . The MpD ‘s efforts bore fruits when the one-party state was abolished [in] HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /September_28 ” \o “September 28 September 28 , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /1990 \o “1990 ” 1990 , and the first multi-party elections were held in January 1991 ‘ The January 1991 ‘s multi-party election gave MpD a majority seat in the National Assembly and defeating the PAICV ‘s presidential candidate by 73 .5 of the votes cast . MpD ‘s presidential candidate HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Antonio_Mascarenhas_Monteiro ” \o “Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro ” Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro succeeded HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Aristides_Pereira ” \o “Aristides Pereira ” Aristides Pereira as the country ‘s first president since 1975 . The December 1995 ‘s legislative elections had increased the MpD majority in the National Assembly and held 50 of the National Assembly ‘s 72 seats . The 1996 presidential election re-elected President Mascarenhas Monteiro to office (History of Cape Verde , n .d ?6

In 2001 , PAICV return to power during the legislative and presidential elections with Pedro Pires narrowly winning the presidential race That same year , food shortages – a common predicament for the country – worsened considerably , and the government relied heavily on foreign aid and food imports to feed the country (Cape Verde , n .d

Politics

Like any other government around the world , the constitution laid down the foundations of the government and defines the inter-departmental legations

The Government . The Cape Verde ‘s constitution was first approved in 1980 and was substantially revised in 1992 . The Cape Verde ‘s revised constitution declares that the government defines , leads , and executes all governmental policies of the country and is accountable to the National Assembly . The Cape Verdean ‘s head of government is reposed to the Prime Minister and is helped by other ministers and secretaries of state . The 72 seats unicameral Assembleia Nacional or National Assembly ‘s member ‘s election is by a popular vote for five-year terms The President appointed the Prime Minister upon the nomination of the National assembly . As a head of state , the President is elected by popular vote with a five-year term . The President , the National Assembly , and the Superior Board of the Magistrature appoint the members of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia as well as the regional courts . Civil and criminal cases are heard by the separate courts and its decision could be appealed to the Supreme Court Cape Verde ‘s legal system is patterned with that of Portugal and the legal age of suffrage is 18 years of age (Politics of Cape Verde , n .d ?1

The present Cape Verde government officials are : President HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Pedro_Pires ” \o “Pedro Pires ” Pedro Pires (Since March 2001 Prime Minister : HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Jos E9_Maria_Neves ” \o “Josy Maria Neves ” Josy Maria Neves (Since February 2001 President of the National Assembly : HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Aristides_Lima ” \o “Aristides Lima ” \t “_blank ” Aristides Lima (as of 2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Victor_Borges ” \o “Victor Borges \t “_blank ” Victor Borges (since 2004 and Minister of National Defense : HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Armindo_Maur EDcio ” \o “Armindo Maurncio ” \t “_blank ” Armindo Maurncio (as of 2003 (Politics of Cape Verde , n .d ?1

Foreign Relations of Cape Verde . By virtue of its strategic location in the transatlantic maritime route , Cape Verde established foreign relations with other countries . As a member of the non-aligned movement (NAM ) it seeks cooperative and diplomatic relations with other friendly countries . The following countries maintain embassies in Cape Verde ‘s capital – Praia : HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Angola ” \o “Angola ” Angola HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Brazil ” \o “Brazil Brazil , the HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /People 27s_Republic_of_China ” \o “People ‘s Republic of China ” People ‘s Republic of China , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Cuba ” \o “Cuba ” Cuba HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /France ” \o “France France , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Germany ” \o “Germany ” Germany , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portugal ” \o “Portugal ” Portugal , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Senegal ” \o “Senegal ” Senegal , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Russia ” \o “Russia ” Russia , and the HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /United_States ” \o “United States ” United States . Being adjacent to the African mainland Cape Verde is interested in its foreign affairs . It has bilateral relations with other lusophone nations and holds membership in a number of international organizations . It also participates in most international conferences on economic and political issues (Foreign Relations of Cape Verde , n .d ?1

U .S .-Cape Verdean Relations . Cape Verde ‘s relationship with other countries is documented in its history because of its unique geographical locations important then and even until now . For U .S . and Cape Verde , their relationships can be traced back to the early days when U .S . is still a new nation

According to the U .S . State Department ‘ background note on Cape Verde it was in the 18th century that U .S . whaling ships had reached the abundant waters of the islands of Cape Verde to recruit crews from Brava and Fogo . Not only whaling activities that was chronicled in the early histories of these two countries , it was also written that as early as 1740s that American ships routinely anchored in Cape Verdean ports to trade for salt or buy slaves (Background Note : Cape Verde , 2006 ? 1 to 3

In consideration for Cape Verde ‘s importance in the region , the United States opened its first consulates in the sub-Saharan Africa in 1818 and continued until today . The U .S . recognized the Cape Verde ‘s independence and even supporting its admission to the United Nations resulting to the subsequent exchange of ambassadors between the two countries . When Cape Verde suffered natural disasters like the hurricane that struck the island of Brava in 1982 , and after a severe volcanic eruption on Fogo in 1995 , the United States provided emergency humanitarian aid and economic assistance . Also , Cape Verde is a recipient of an annual 15 ,000 metric tons of grain yearly from the United States and is eligible for trade benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA . Finally the U .S . has signed an Open Skies agreement to facilitate air travel safety and expansion and on the 4th of July of 2005 , Cape Verde became the third country to sign a compact with the U .S . Government-funded Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC the three-year assistance package is worth over 110 million in addressing rural economic expansion , infrastructure development , and development of tourism and a community college system (Background Note : Cape Verde , 2006 ? 1 to 3

Economy

The vibrant economy is an indicator of development and progress of a country the absence of which is very gloomy not for the country itself but for its people

Poor natural resources and the serious water shortages resulting to a severe and long spell of drought affects the Cape Verde ‘s low Gross Domestic Product (GDP . On a normal wet season , only the islands of Santiago , Santo Antgo , Fogo , and Brava can produce significant farm produce . Only salt , pozzolana (a volcanic rock used in cement production , and limestone are the country ‘s mineral resources . The country ‘s lobster and tuna industries are not fully exploited and developed resulting to low inflow of capital even if [f]ish and shellfish are plentiful , and small quantities are exported . [The country] has cold storage and freezing facilities as well as fish processing plants in [the islands of] HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mindelo ” \o “Mindelo ” Mindelo Praia , and on Sal . Cape Verde ‘s economy is a service oriented one with commerce , transport , and public services [that accounts] 70 of [its] GDP . These economic indicators resulted to the importation of the 90 of food needed by the country (Economy of Cape Verde , n .d ? 1

The 1991 democratic government aimed to develop the private sector and its role in the economy as the country moved to diversify it . It opened its market to foreign investors by privatization program and it prioritized the promotion of market economy and of the private sector the development of tourism , light manufacturing industries , and fisheries and the development of transport , communications , and energy facilities ‘ The 1991 economic reforms by the Cape Verde government resulted to about U .S 50 million in foreign investments , of which 50 was in industry , 19 in tourism , and 31 in fisheries and services in 1994-95 (Economy of Cape Verde , n .d ? 1

The Mindelo ‘s harbor at Porto Grande and at Sal ‘s international airport ‘s improvements enhance the country ‘s strategic location as a crossroads of mid-Atlantic air and sea lanes ‘ In 1983 , Mindelo ‘s harbor has opened a [s]hip repair facilities

Culture and Music

For several centuries , Cape Verde is under the control of Portugal . It was in this regard that Cape Verdeans culture and customs had permeated the mainstream society and influenced its way of life . Also , by virtue of its proximity to the West African coast it acquires some African cultural heritage that can be seen in its popular culture . Cape Verde possessed a rich body of oral narratives and one of those is the popular story of Ti Lobo and Chibinho ( Uncle Wolf and Nephew (Culture of Cape Verde , n .d

Like any other African culture , Cape Verdeans is famed for its improvised singing which can be seen in its social gatherings and festivities . One form of singing that is unique to the Cape Verdeans is the melancholic morna ‘ which is an expression of sorrows of emigration and love

The Music . M HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Morna ” \o “morna ” orna [is] a form of HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Folk_music ” \o “folk music ” folk music usually sung in HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portuguese_Creole ” \o “Portuguese Creole ” creole-Portuguese , accompanied by HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Clarinet ” \o “clarinet ” clarinet , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Accordion ” \o “accordion ” accordion , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Violin ” \o “violin ” violin HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guitar ” \o “guitar guitar and HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Cavaquinho ” \o “cavaquinho cavaquinho . Morna has primarily European roots , but the islands also boast HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Funana ” \o “funana ” \t “_blank ” funana and HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Batuco ” \o “batuco ” \t “_blank ” batuco music that are more closely related to HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /West_Africa ” \o “West Africa ” West African styles

Morna is the national song-style beloved by Cape Verdeans across the many islands of the country ‘ and is related to HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portugal ” \o “Portugal Portuguese HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Fado ” \o “fado ” fado and its close cousin , HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Brazil ” \o “Brazil ” Brazilian HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Modinha ” \o “modinha ” \t “_blank modinha . Lyrics are usually in HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Kriolu ” \o “Kriolu ” Kriolu , and reflect highly-variable themes , including HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Love ” \o “love ” love and HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Lust ” \o “lust ” lust HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Patriotism ” \o “patriotism ” patriotism and HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mourning ” \o “mourning ” mourning ‘ It was believed that it originated on HYPERLINK “http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Boa_Vista 2C_Cape_Verde ” \o “Boa Vista , Cape Verde ” Boa Vista as a cheerful song-type . HYPERLINK “http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Eug 26eacute 3Bnio_Tavares ” \o “Eug… [banner_entry_footer]

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