cognitive, behaviorist, and social paradigms of learning
Learning Theory : A Tri-pod of Knowledge Introduction Learning (def ) – Learning Occurs when experience causes a permanent change in an individual ‘s knowledge or behavior (Hill 2002
There have been many approaches designed to assist the acquisition of both knowledge and behavior . This presentation will examine the three major families of learning theory and their key principles , assumptions , and determinations as to the roles of both teachers and students , and how exactly each suggests instruction should be structured Behavioral Learning Theory Family Emphasis on external events acting upon the individual Assumes environment and conditioning [banner_entry_middle]
are major influences of behavior The outcome of learning is a change in behavior Conditioning can assist people in learning more adaptive responses The learning process involves stimuli which evoke responses in the learner Stimuli can be controlled in to produce desired changes in behavior Factors That Influence Learning Biology and maturation are merely used to consider proper stimuli Social interaction is a source of stimuli but not necessarily used for classroom instruction The environment and its stimuli are major factors in learning Memory assists learning as the brain associates a particular stimulus with a particular response this is strengthened by conditioning Instruction The learner assumes somewhat a passive role as the receiver of manipulated stimuli administered by the instructor The instructor works as almost a scientist controlling the environmental stimuli in to achieve the hoped for learning outcomes Learning is maximized by the use of reinforcement to support desired behaviors and evidences of knowledge Consequence systems , cueing , and rewards are all a part of a behavioral learning environment Contributors to the Behavioral Learning Theory Family Ivan Pavlov discovered Classical Conditioning Thorndike and Skinner developed Operant Conditioning and Thorndike theorized the law of effect ‘ which says that any behavior which produces a satisfying effect will be repeated (Woolfolk 210 J .B . Watson championed environmental-learning where the major causes of developmental change are exogenous (from the environment (Cole 1993 David Premack invented the Premack Principle Cognitive Learning Theory Family Theorists focus more on the individual Proponents assume mental processes exist and can be studied Knowledge is learned . A change in knowledge makes a change in behavior possible Reinforcement is a source of feedback or information Learners actively choose to learn Development is an important part of learning Theorists focus more on processing than behavior Cognitive Learning Family cont Long-term memory is a goal of learning Individual developmental differences must be considered This view sees learning as transforming significant understanding we already have , rather than simple acquisitions written on blank slates (Greeno , Collins Resnick , 1996 Facts that Influence Learning Information processing is important . Students need to be able to organize knowledge , store , and retrieve it Perception is how we assign meaning to stimuli and is important in learning There are three types of memory : sensory , working , and long-term Attention plays an important role in all three types of memory Learners pattern information into memorized schemas representing the networks for particular concepts or skills Instruction Information needs… [banner_entry_footer]
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