Essay Title: 

Comparative Philosophies of Education

March 21, 2016 | Author: | Posted in education, pedagogy

Comparative Philosophies of Education

Traditional philosophical perspectives share a common assumption : the human mind can know the nature of reality . In the past several hundred years ‘ radical changes have occurred in the way philosophy is conceived and practiced . In modern times there are opposing views about the philosophies of education . From Reny Descartes ‘ posture of doubt to David Hume ‘s skeptical challenges , the traditional confidence in our most basic beliefs has eroded . Immanuel Kant dealt another blow to the traditional role of philosophy by claiming that metaphysics is a kind of [banner_entry_middle]

mental projection , not a science of objective reality ( Michael L Peterson , Pg :51-52 . Philosophers such as Comenius , Rousseau Pestalozzi , Froebel , Montessori , and Dewey say interesting things about a variety of s roughly related to education such as Kant and Rousseau , write on education , they often fail to be philosophical about the issues connected with education . Bertrand Russell ‘s view of philosophy as persistent attempt at clear-headedness is deficient in that clear-headedness certainly is necessary for doing philosophy . A view alleged to be Wittgenstein ‘s , that philosophy is a form of language therapy in which idle language is put back to work through a process of conceptual clarification , errs in the opposite direction (Cornel M Hamm , Pg-2-4 . There is no general harmony about what the young should learn either in relation to virtue or in relation to the best life Plato ‘s philosophical approach stated that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born to all classes moves us away from aristocracy . While Aristotle philosophy dealt with nature , habit and reason to be three equally important forces to be cultivated in education . Rousseau had a different theory of human development-where Plato held that people are born with skills appropriate to different castes . A holistic educational impulse was created by Rudolf Steiner emphasizes a balance of developing the intellect , feeling and artistic life , and practical skills

By a constant questioning of received opinions , Socrates tried to reveal that these could not be sustained as easily as was assumed . Plato translated the Socratic approach into a distinction between knowledge (episteme ) and belief (doxa . This was not only a formalisation of the Socratic style . It also installed a division of tasks – and thereby a distinction – between the common man , who could only achieve doxa , and the philosopher , who could have episteme . Plato ‘s distinction not only provided a justification for the superior position of the philosopher in the polis (Frieda Heyting , Pg-125-126 (American ) essentialism , by William Bagley is grounded in a conservative philosophy that accepts the social , political , and economic structure of American society . Essentialists argue , American schools should transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens . While progressivism respect for individuality , its high regard for science , and its receptivity to change harmonized well with the American environment in which it was created . John Dewey (1859-1952 ) also claimed that the one constant truth about the universe is the existence of change . Education… [banner_entry_footer]

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