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March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in geology and geophysics, nature


I . Introduction

Earthquakes , in the simplest way possible , are defined to be the shaking of the earth ‘s crust . This phenomenon occurs when the earth ‘s stored energy is suddenly released causing the emission of seismic waves . Physically , it is characterized by the ground ‘s displacement often causing cracks on the soil , floor , concrete , or pavement on the affected areas . It can strike strong leading to massive property destruction and even death

Earthquakes can be caused by nature or through human intervention Another natural catastrophe , the tsunami , can be [banner_entry_middle]

the reason for earthquakes . Human activities like oil drilling and deep excavations can cause earthquakes as well . Earthquakes can come in different intensities . Different devices , the most popular of which is the Ritcher Scale , is devised to measure its strength

A deeper study on the components , environments , elements , and times of earthquakes are going to be discussed in this . Along with that its linkages and interactions with other Earth systems are going to be analyzed . It is the objective of this to guide the readers into a conclusion as to what earthquake is , what it can do , and to what extent the researches about it can affect its occurrence

II . Earthquakes in its Contextual Form

Robert W . Day regarded that the formulation of the theory of plate tectonics in the year 1960 had helped immensely in the study and the understanding of earthquakes . According to this theory , the surface of the earth contains tectonic plates , which is also otherwise known as lithosphere plates . Tectonic plates are what consists the crust and the more rigid part of the earth ‘s upper mantle . These tectonic plates move following a relative direction . The locations of the great majority of earthquakes correspond to the boundaries between the plates . There are three types of plate boundaries , and these are the transform boundary convergent boundary , and divergent boundary (Day 2002

Transform plate boundaries forms when two plates slide horizontally past each other as they move in opposite directions . Frequent earthquakes are noted to occur along transform plate boundaries . This type of boundary is seen in both oceans and continents . An example of a transform plate boundary is the California ‘s San Andreas Fault . The fault is a transform boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate

Thompson and Turk defined and described convergent boundaries to be lithospheric plates moving toward one another . Convergent boundaries are composed of the upper rigid portion of the mantle and topped by either the dense basaltic oceanic crust or the lighter granitic continental crust . There are three types of convergence boundaries : the ocean-ocean plate convergence , ocean-continent convergence , and continent-continent convergence

Ocean-ocean plate convergence mostly occurs throughout the margins of the northern and western Pacific Ocean , where the Pacific Ocean plate moving northwestward , collides with the oceanic crust of Eurasian and North American plates . When plate convergences of this type moves , the older , which is also the cooler and the denser plate descends below the younger and more… [banner_entry_footer]

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