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March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in ethnic and area studies, social sciences

Course : Chemistry

Instructor : Prof . Sahinoglu

: Enzymes


What are enzymes ? Enzymes are considered as organic substances that are produced by all animals and plants and catalyze chemical reactions . The human bodies need thousands of distinct enzymes in to function Enzymes are very sensitive to acid-base balance and temperature Organism cannot live without the enzymes , like photosynthesis and respiration , due to the fact that the fundamental metabolic processes only happen in the presence of these materials . The original name for enzymes is called ferments because the enzyme action was initially [banner_entry_middle]

br noticed in the fermentation process . Louis Pasteur recommended that several microbe activity affected grape juice ferment into wine in mid-19th century . Subsequent experiments and analysis substantiated that fermentation occurred because of the protein substances that were produced by the microbe . This protein is currently recognized and identified as an enzyme . Enzymes ‘ medical uses consist of drugs to heal the wound immediately , to melt blood clots and to aid cataract surgery (see Enzymes , New Standard Encyclopedia . Page E-188 , Vol . 6

Moreover , enzymes are recognized to catalyze approximately 4 ,000 reactions . Nevertheless , not every biological catalyst is considered as proteins given that a number of RNA molecules identified as ribozymes are also able to catalyze reactions . Enzymes are normally called correspondingly to the reaction which the enzymes catalyze . A number of enzymes are able to make their change of substrate to product happen several million of times more quickly (see Enzyme . Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia . October 4 , 2006

The purposes of this study are to (1 ) know the Enzyme cofactors (2 understand the factors affecting enzyme action (3 ) and be aware of the classification of enzymes

Enzyme cofactors

Several enzymes need the existence of a supplementary , non-protein cofactor

Several of these are metal ions like Zn2 , Mn2 , K , Na and Cu2

Several cofactors are tiny organic molecules which are known as coenzymes . The B vitamins (thiamine , riboflavin and nicotinamide ) are coenzymes ‘ precursor (see Enzyme cofactors . December 9 , 2006

Factors affecting enzyme action

Enzymes ‘ activity is powerfully influenced by alterations in temperature and pH . All enzymes work very well at a particular temperature Alterations in pH change the status of ionization of charged of amino acids which possibly play a vital function in substrate binding . If there is no unionized – Asp-52 ‘s ionized -COO- and Glu-35 ‘s COOH group the catalytic process of lysozyme ought to stop (see Factors Affecting Enzyme Action . December 6 , 2004

Classification of enzymes

Based on type reaction

Transferase- transfer a useful and efficient group

Lyase- break C-N , C-C or C-O bonds

Ligase- unite two molecules

Hydrolase- produce hydolysis reactions

Oxidoreductase- catalyze a redox reaction

Isomerases- reorganize useful and efficient group (see Hardy , James k and the University of Akron . Enzymes : Classification of enzymes Copyright 1997-2005



Enzymes , New Standard Encyclopedia . Standard Educational Corporation , Chicago . Page E-188 , Vol . 6

Enzyme . Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia . October 4 , 2006

http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Enzyme

3 . Enzyme cofactors . December 9 , 2006 http /users .rcn .com /jkimball .ma .ultranet /BiologyPages… [banner_entry_footer]

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