Human motivation can be describes as urges , aspirations , drives and needs of human beings direct or control or explain their behavior . It may simply be described as keenness for a particular pattern of behavior . The main human motivation theories are (1 ) Maslow ‘s hierarchy of needs (2 ) expectancy theory (3 ) X and Y theory (4 ) equity theory and (5 ) Hertzberg ‘s theory (hygiene theory
Maslow ‘s theory of motivation claims that human motives develop in sequence according to five levels of needs (Weiner1980 . The advantage of this theory is [banner_entry_middle]
that it proposes the most detailed characteristics of human needs . On the other hand , it does not allow to examine motivation of employees through the role of rewards and satisfaction . This leads to the statement that a satisfied need is not a motivator . There is a doubt whether this really applies in practice to the higher needs as it is likely that self-esteem requires continues stimulation and renewal There is low level of risk-taking , because people do not necessarily satisfy higher- needs through their jobs or occupations
Similar to Mallow ‘s theory , expectancy theory states people act only when they have reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to desired goals , and do mot accept risks . Advantages of this theory include : lack of psychological characteristics of people , their needs and different behavior patterns . Outcomes with high expectations which are less highly valued (or even disliked ) will reduce effort expended Other studies on expectations and job performance emphasize the greater importance of intrinsic motivation factors . The disadvantage of this theory is that it treats money as the main factor of motivation but does not take into account the other factors . As an advantage , this theory explains that motivation is a function of the expectancy of attaining a certain outcome in performing a certain act multiplied by the value of the outcome for the performer (Weiner 1980
In contrast to Marlow and Hertzberg , equity theory focuses on people ‘s feelings of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others . This theory does no take into account risk-taking factors . Also , equity theory cannot be applied to all workers because according to psychological peculiarities not all people what to be equal . In contrast to other theories , equity theory omits understanding of positive motivation and a feeling of well-being that achieved not by just improving recognition , achievement , responsibility but reward . The pros of this theory are that it helps to explain motivation as certain outcomes in exchange for certain contributions , or inputs (Armstrong 2003
X and Y theory was formulated by Douglas McGregor . The main limitation is that the only way employees can attempt to satisfy their high level needs by compensation (McGregor , 2005 . People are willing to accept high level of risks seeking more compensation . Theory Y is based on integration of individual and organizational goals , and state that for employees work is a natural play and rest , people are self-direction and -control towards achieving objectives they… [banner_entry_footer]
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