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Jurnal Artical Review

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in finance, mathematics and economics

Article Review

Article Review

1 ) Micheal R .Smith (2001 ) evaluates the effect of police activity and crackdown on reduction of crime rates evaluated in article Police-Led Crackdowns and Cleanups : An Evaluation of a Crime Control Initiative in Richmond , Virginia . He posed the question that whether to what degree police activity can reduce or impede the criminal activities . His study is specific to Blitz and Bloom ‘ initiative taken by the City of Richmond police Department to curb the criminal offenses in some areas He states that the purpose of this study was [banner_entry_middle]

to measure the effects of Blitz to Bloom on crime and calls for service in and around the targeted hot spots (Smith , 2001 ) He further states that evaluation of the impact of Richmond Police ‘s Blitz to Bloom ‘ program was the central focus of this research study and not the processes involved in this operation

Smith based its study on the earliest place selected by police officials to under treatment of Blitz to Bloom strategy . The selected Area Highland Park neighborhood was due to higher crime rates neighborhood cohesiveness and local political processes . The characteristics of this area included the 96 African American population with an average household income of 22700 . Robberies , high rates of violent crime and drug marketing were pervasive features of this area . Police elected an area of 50 square block area . Police methodology included deployment of more personnel in the area and significant visible presence

2 ) Smith used primary data collected by Richmond Police Department that was comprised of crime statistics collected by police department from October 1998 to October 1999 and citizens ‘ calls for service to police department . The dependent variables included the rate of the crimes over the month of April , 1999 and outcome variables were crimes reported to the police and citizens calls for service . The independent variables include manpower allocation , patterns of patrol activities (the number of suspicious stops , traffic citations etc , code enforcement efforts trash removal , and other neighborhood improvement efforts (Smith br


Smith states that a quivalent comparison group was employed to assess the effectiveness of Blitz to Bloom program and pre April 1999 and post April 1999 (before and after the Blitz to Bloom crackdown Further statistics and data was acquired about areas with same racial composition and crime characteristic to make a comparison between these areas and Highland park (the area subject to the treatment of Blitz to Bloom operation

Smith used t test as the basic analytical tool for this comparative appraisal and evaluation of post and pre Blitz to Bloom period . But Smith pointed out further impediments in the way of effective utilization of t test for the evaluation purpose . Smith illustrates that effective utilization of this analytical tools demands normal distribution of the population under-study , the equal variance of population and the observations within each sample are independent of those in other sample (Smith ,

.68 ) but reports of Richmond Police Department often violated these pre-requisites as collection of suitable data according to above mentioned characteristics was not possible due the small number of criminal offenses within the target population Smith attributes the same problems to the data collected for calls for service , for example , domestics call , calls of doubtful happenings etc

Smith tried to correct or reduce the degree of error by compiling the data on weekly basis instead of daily basis . He asserted that mostly this approached yielded results and resulting distributions approached normality (Smith ,

. 69 ) He further employed the technique of Levene ‘s Test for equality of variance showed that results are diverse In case of significant differences , Smith further utilized Mann-Whitney U Test that is a powerful device that does not assume normality of distribution and equality of variances (Smith ,

. 69

3 ) The findings of Smith ‘s research study clearly manifested a significant reduction in the crime rate during the month of April 1999 when Blitz to Bloom program was implemented . During April 1999 , only a single UCR Part I offense occurred in Highland Park area and its neighborhood so in the area as compared with criminal activities reported in the past six months . In the same period , there was no significant change in the reported crime in the target area as compared with pre-1999 period and no police action was either taken that could had have effected the reported crime in the target area . So Smith says that Although Part I property crime showed a measurable reduction in the target area after the Blitz to Bloom went into effect , this reduction was not statistically significant (Smith ,


Smith further tried to locate the effect of Blitz to Bloom ‘ outside the target area and for this purpose he analyzed the data of areas adjacent to Highland Park and its neighborhood . The problem to evaluate this effect was that Highland Park was an isolated area , cut off from its neighborhood by railroad tracks , interstate highways and main roads So Smith asserted that the major impact of the program was ensnared in the Parkland Park area itself and was not displaced to other adjoining areas . However he calculated this effect by the data available and found that in certain area there was nominal effect of this Blitz to Bloom and in some areas this impact was nil (Smith described three Zones 90 92 and 93 and found that Zone 90 manifested no significant impact while this effect was marginal in Zones 92 and 93 the details and map of these zones are available at page 72 and 80 respectively . Smith ‘s findings further illustrated that Six month after the blitz period ended , crime had returned almost to its preintervention level within the target area (Smith ,

.73 ) Smith suggested that Sherman model of frequent crackdowns after specific intervals is a proper solution to this problem of remounting of criminal activities . The research study further found that call for service was reduced to 18 in the Highland Park as compared with previous five months

4 ) Smith illustrates the shortcoming of the research study by depicting the examples of non-availability or poor quality of the data on many of the linked variables . The research suggested that police crackdowns are viable measures to reduce the criminal activities for shorter period of time . So these must be implemented in a specific area after frequent intervals . He further suggested that although crackdowns do not reduce the public demand for police services . Smith says that Blitz to Bloom program was not a feasible program at the monetary side and further research should be carried out to find more appropriate measures . He raised some questions for further study that as Blitz to Bloom program was of a shorter period , what would be the effects if a longer term maintenance program had been put into place


M . R Smith (2001 : Police-Led Crackdowns and cleanups : An Evaluation of a crime control initiative in Richmond , Virginia . Crime and Delinquency 47 , 60-83



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