Essay Title: 

Major Theories of Human Development

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in psychology, social sciences

Major Theories of Human Development

1 . Epigenetic theory (Erikson

Erikson ‘s epigenetic theory depicts personality development as a passage through eight sequential stages of ego development from infancy through old age . According to Erikson , the developing individual must master and resolve , to some extent , a core conflict or crisis during each stage by integrating personal needs and skills with the social and cultural demands and expectations of the environment . Passage to each developmental stage is dependent on the resolution of the core conflict of ht preceding stage . No core conflict is [banner_entry_middle]

completely mastered , however (Mandleco 2004

2 . Psychoanalytic theory (Freud

According to Freud , human behavior is motivated by psychodynamic forces within an individual ‘s unconscious mind . Driven to act by these internal forces , individuals repeatedly interact with their external environment An individual ‘s personality and psychosexual identity are developed through the accumulation of these interacational experiences Personality consists of three components : id , ego and superego . The id is inborn , unconscious and driven by biologic instincts . The ego is a conscious and rational faculty . The superego is the internalization of the moral values learnt from parents and elders (Madleco 2004

3 ) Behaviorist theory (Watson

Behaviorism contends that human behavior can be explained as just a relationship between a stimulus and a response , and learned behavior is just a conditioned response

Everything from speech to emotional responses are simply patterns of stimulus and response . Watson denied completely the existence of the mind or consciousness . Emotions are regarded simply as conditioned bodily responses to outside events . Thinking is explained simply as talking quietly . Watson believed that human behavior should be studied in a manner that allows the researcher to predict and control those behaviors (Klein 1989

4 ) Classical conditioning (Thorndike , Skinner

Building upon the work of Thorndike , Skinner distinguished two types of behavior . Respondent behavior is based on reflexes and does not require learning . For example , if one touches a hot surface , one will quickly remove one ‘s hand . Operant behavior , however , is learnt , and is performed spontaneously rather than as an automatic response to a situation . According to Skinner most human behavior is operant . Whereas classical conditioning depends on developing associations between events , operant conditioning involves learning from consequences of our behavior (Klein 1989

5 ) Social learning theory (Bandura

In social learning theory , primary focus is given to learning experiences that occur through reciprocal social interactions Environmental or situational determinants are important , but interactions are thought to be the conduit for internalization of social and nonsocial cues for behavior . Bandura and colleagues investigated the effects of modeling and imitation on the behavior of young children They postulated that modeling and imitation are the primary interaction processes through which behavioral repertoires are acquired . Social learning theory emphasizes the socializing influence of the family (Lerner 1996

6 ) Cognitive theory (Piaget

According to Piaget ‘s cognitive theory , children ‘s development is marked by periods when they are particularly sensitive and responsive to outside influences . However , children are not blank slates on which teachers compose whatever… [banner_entry_footer]

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