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philosophy

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in philosophy, social sciences

Philosophy

2006 Exposition

Many philosophical theories throughout human history have attempted to comprehend aspects of the nature of the human being what motivates it what forces it to take actions (or to be inactive , what can be considered as moral and ethical (and so , good and positive , and what leads it to hateful acts that are immoral (and so , bad or evil

One of the most famous theories in this sphere is Mill ‘s Utilitarianism which , in few words , states that what leads to the judgment regarding a certain action is [banner_entry_middle]

its outcome . Utility is the endorsement of pleasure and the absence of pain and that is what happiness really is and that is why utility is indicated as the Greatest Happiness Principle Consequently , pleasure (or not having pain ) is what society values the most . As each member of the society seeks happiness , then happiness should be of high value , and the society will always intend to maximize it into On the other hand , egoism , according to its philosophical meaning , is the theory promoting the idea that an individual ‘s actions should be judged in accordance with his /her interests and needs contrary to the tradition view of philosophy in what concerns morality . This means that an individual desires and needs are the moving force behind all actions of humans . In this meaning , egoism cannot be looked at as a virtuous character , but for some , such as Ayn Rand , egoism as a virtue is not egoism as `selfishness . nor is it egoism as mere self-aggrandizement (egotism ‘ Egoism according to moral philosophers should not be confused with `satisfying one ‘s own desires , for one ‘s own desires may well be altruistic or selfless (Solomon , 2003

Rand goes through a specific path in to reach her final conclusions . According to her , for life to continue and flourish certain elements should be provided and maintained . For a living organism to survive , certain conditions should be there (i .e . in its own interest : From this , a simple model of morality appears what allows that organism to survive is good , and what leads to the creation of obstacles is bad

This is for what concerns a simple living organism , but when we talk about humans , she affirms , there is some extra factor that clarifies the case : Human ‘s ability to think and reason . She states that reason is the most important element that leads humans to create their values and ethical standards , because these ethics and moral standards are ultimately , directed at the continuation of his interests and the protection of his life (and the interests and lives of others in the same way

Ayn Rand ‘s view concerning this issue is that egoism should be thought of as pursuing self-interest according to reasonable and logical concepts . Rand ‘s egoism is distinctive insofar as she contends that a determination of the proper way to lead our lives must begin with an analysis of the concept of value . This analysis yields a portrait of what… [banner_entry_footer]

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