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post impression

March 22, 2016 | Author: | Posted in architecture, art

Post Impression

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Post Impressionism

Post-Impressionism is a movement that started in France and immediately followed Impressionism . Post-Impressionists generally were more concerned with expression , structure and form . Influenced by the Symbolist movement in literature , the French Post-Impressionists ignored the minutiae of natural scenes in favor of the more intangible areas of aesthetics or symbolic content . Deeper meanings , as well as the personal feelings of the artist , became valid subjects . Post-Impressionism implies that Impressionism was a distinctive style uniform in composition . Post-Impressionism is a [banner_entry_middle]

highly diverse range of sensibilities . There is no single well-defined style of Post-Impressionism . In general it is less casual and more emotionally exciting than Impressionist work . A more common definition of Post-Impressionism is that it is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of artist who were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in different directions (Rewald , 1979

Post-Impressionism was both an development of Impressionism and a elimination of its boundaries . Post-Impressionists continued using thick application of paint , vivid colors , characteristic brushstrokes and real-life subject matter . Although , they were more tending to distort form for expressive effect , to emphasize geometric forms , and to use arbitrary or unnatural color . The post-Impressionists were frustrated with the loss of structure and triviality of themes in Impressionist paintings , however they did not agree on the further way (Rewald , 1979

Most Post-Impressionist started out as Impressionistic painters and slowly implemented different personal styles . However , Impressionism is the roots that allow for the evolution of ideas , styles and emotions that we now know today as Post-Impressionism . Post-Impressionists used color to explore the spatial relationships between objects in nature while at the same time studying the underlying forms of nature itself Van Gogh allowed his brushstrokes and color to express his almost pantheistic fascination with the energy that animates natural forms as well as individual people . Toulouse-Lautrec freely adopted any technique or style that helped him to attain a desired effect , from classical composition to Impressionist color theory . Henry Rousseau can be considered the first major exponent of Naive art . His brightly colored dream-like paintings , many of them depicting exotic subjects anticipated some of the major artistic movements . In the work of all these artists , the abstract concerns of harmony and the two-dimensional arrangement of forms took precedence over naturalism . Many artists were soon influenced by these innovations

Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890 ) was a Dutch painter . His life and work are legendary in the history of art . In the popular view , van Gogh has become the prototype of the misunderstood , tormented artist , who sold only one work in his lifetime . Romantic clichys suggest that van Gogh paid with insanity for his genius , which was understood only by his supportive brother Theo . Van Gogh was active as an artist for only ten years , during which time he produced some 1000 watercolors , drawings and sketches and about 1250 paintings ranging from a dark , Realist style to an intense , expressionistic one . Almost more than on his oeuvre , his fame has been based on the extensive , diary-like correspondence he maintained , in particular with his brother (Wikipedia , 2006

His painting technique underwent a rapid metamorphosis , influenced in turn by Delacroix , Monticelli , the Impressionists , the Divisionists , and Japanese printmakers . He introduced bright and broken color and explored more modern urban themes . During 1887 he organized two exhibitions in informal cafy settings , one of Japanese prints , another of his own work together with that of avant-garde contemporaries Bernard Toulouse-Lautrec , and Anquetin this was the first public display of the Cloisonnist style . It took a while for the public to understand van Gogh ‘s paintings as he introduced a style , the use of color , and compositional techniques , foreign to those of his generation . Japanese art exercised great influence on these innovations . Since he was always open to different styles , he absorbed the bold and flat colors , the black lines contouring the forms , and the display of background used by the . He also understood the decorative power of the unbroken lines used in Eastern art and adopted them in his work (Callow , 1990

Reaction to impressionism accompanied its acceptance by the traditional salons and the public . Impressionism opened the gate to new possibilities of pictorial representation and gave artists more freedom of style and subject matter . Among those who walked the path prepared by the impressionists was van Gogh . Although his career lasted for ten years , we feel overwhelmed by the number and the greatness of his paintings . Notwithstanding his mental breakdowns , and long periods of recuperation in mental institutions , van Gogh left a legacy to the world of art

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901 , was a French painter and draughtsman . His early talent for drawing was encouraged by family and friends , notably by the sporting painters Reny Princeteau and John Lewis Brown . In 1882 he became a pupil of the academic portraitist Lyon Bonnat (1833-1922 ) and in 1883 entered the school of academic painter Fernand Cormon (1845-1924 , where he met Bernard , Anquetin , and van Gogh . In 1885 , he was given a financial competence and set up studio in Montmartre . He began to draw for the illustrated journals , tackling modern subjects from the streets , theatres , music halls , cafys , and low life of Paris . He collected the etchings of Goya and admired the work of Degas (Frey , 1994

His artistic goals remained highly eclectic and personal . In his painting and drawing , Toulouse-Lautrec worked in oils , watercolor charcoal , pastel , ink and , very occasionally , colored pencils . He favored artificial rather than natural light and seemed to enjoy ironically posing subjects in contexts where they felt ill at ease Working in oils , he often sketched the original outlines with a brush in intense blue or green , allowing those lines to show through subsequent layers of translucent paint to give the finished work a rapid , sketchy quality , which is sometimes enhanced by the presence of bare canvas and undeveloped areas of composition . He often painted on raw cardboard using oil greatly thinned with turpentine . The absorbent surface gave the paint a powdery , almost chalky texture as it dried (Frey , 1994

Toulouse-Lautrec made a few monotypes and dry point engravings , but his important contributions to printmaking are in the field of lithography and most importantly in the color poster . His experiments in lithography included spattering and the use of gold dust , both based on Japanese techniques . His use of large , flat areas of color and stylized shapes makes posters that are not only immediately comprehensible to the passer-by but also function as works of social and artistic complexity full of visual commentary on society and references to other works of art . In some prints his colored shapes dominate the work as abstractions , moving it beyond the purely representational (Frey , 1994

Possibly as a result of his disdain for the kind of art that won prizes at the official Salon , Toulouse-Lautrec developed an absolute hatred for varnished painting , for any surface that was falsely sealed and glossy To him the varnish and affectation of such works symbolized the hypocrisy and sentimentality that surrounded bourgeois social conventions . His style , characterized by flat rhythmic patterning and calligraphic use of strong outline , combined an acerbic realism with the decorative influences of Cloisonnism , Japanese color prints , and the poster artist Jules Chyret . Toulouse-Lautrec was keenly interested in color lithography – notably pioneering the `crachis ‘ or splatter technique – and was one of the most important influences in rendering both lithography and the poster major art forms (http /www .lautrec .info

Rousseau , Henri (1844 – 1910 ) was a French painter . He developed an interest in painting late in life and was self-taught through copying in the Louvre . Rousseau , on Paul Signac ‘s advice , submitted a work , which was exhibited at the Salon des Indypendants in 1886 and he exhibited there for the rest of his life . This venue was to provide a vital arena for more unconventional art production . Rousseau was inspired by a variety of subjects , especially portraits , landscapes , and exotic themes . His portraits have a certain stillness and awkwardness which is arresting : artistic friends , like the painter Marie Laurencin and the poet Guillaume Apollinaire , the novelist Pierre Loti , and family members , especially strange , monumental children . Myself Portrait-Landscape (1890 ) is typical of the stark contrasts of scale and the symbolic settings of Rousseau ‘s portraits . The artist in beret palette in hand , stands on the quais of his beloved Seine with the Eiffel Tower asserting his identity as a `modern master (Smith , 2006

Rousseau ‘s The Hungry Lion (1905 ) may have inspired many artists . Drawn to exotic climes and creatures in his imagination , but not , despite the mythology , in actual experience , Rousseau derived his portrayal of jungle flora and fauna from visits to Paris ‘s Jardin des Plantes . The enigmatic sexuality and strange juxtapositions of a work like The Dream have been claimed as precursors to Surrealism . Although Rousseau did not achieve fame in official circles , failing in his three entries to the public competitions for the decoration of Parisian town halls , he was greatly admired by young and artists . Champions and friends of Rousseau included Alfred Jarry and Rymy de Gourmont , founders of the journal L ‘Imagier which celebrated folk art the painter Pablo Picasso who held a banquet for Rousseau , Robert Delaunay , and Wassily Kandinsky He is commonly seen as the archetype of the untutored artist and can be considered the first major exponent of Naive art . His brightly colored dream-like paintings , many of them depicting exotic subjects anticipated some of the major artistic movements of the 20th century including Surrealism (http /www .nga .gov /education /schoolarts /rousseau .htm

In France the political and cultural anarchy of the 1880s and 1890s encouraged artists to reject the stylistic norms of the past . In other European countries different aesthetics and political environments spawned varying responses to this artistic freedom . The lack of a strong Impressionist tradition , as well as of any single artistic center diluted the impact of Post-Impressionism . The predominant artistic style among avant-garde painters theless remained Naturalism Impressionism and Naturalism continued to dominate the art world until well after 1900 . In many countries , Post-Impressionism was never considered a `movement ‘ in art . The Post-Impressionists nevertheless later influenced many artists who were trying in various ways to move beyond the realistic concerns of the Impressionists . Thus , the primitivism of Rousseau , the expressionism of van Gogh and the color lithography and splatter technique of Toulouse-Lautrec found followers throughout the world

References

Rewald , John (1979 . Post-Impressionism : From Van Gogh to Gauguin Museum of Modern Art

Callow , Philip (1990 . Vincent Van Gogh : A Life . Ivan R . Dee

Frey , J (1994 ) Toulouse-Lautrec : A Life . London and New York

Smith , Roberta (2006 . Henri Rousseau : In imaginary jungles , a terrible beauty lurks . The New York Times , July 14

http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Van_Gogh

http /www .lautrec .info

http /www .nga .gov /education /schoolarts /rousseau .htm

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