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Protection and Security Operating Systems

March 21, 2016 | Author: | Posted in science, technology

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Protection and Security Operating Systems

Abstract

Security is an ever more important concern in system design however classic protection means have proved incapable to cope with current security problems . Increasingly untrustworthy software or remotely exploited applications , means that it is no longer satisfactory to protect users from each other . We explore a range of proposals protection . This examines approaches that seek to preserve the classic operating system environment as well as [banner_entry_middle]

approaches that introduce user-level security

Protection Security of Operating Systems : An Introduction

Security has become an increasingly important in systems research Primary interest is protection : preventing the unlawful reading or manipulation of data , or the illegal use of resources , including in the form of denial of service . Conventionally , protection has been based on the idea of protecting users from each other . The operating system and other programs validate a user , and the user is the basis of protection policies . Applications a user runs on his behalf are assumed to perform according to their specifications

The rise of the Internet , nevertheless , has significantly reduced the trust that can be placed in software run on a user ‘s desktop . First , a remarkable amount of active content can be run simply by loading a Web page or reading an e-mail . Second , software distribution over the Internet has lowered the difficulty to entry , and the use of so-called spyware and adware , disguised as genuine software , is on the rise Lastly , local applications are interpreting increasingly remote content increasing the chances that a malicious user can abuse weaknesses to take control of the program . These potentially unreliable applications though , operate with the same permissions as other , more trusted applications . The user , although protected from others , is not protected from himself . As early as 1971 , Butler Lampson noted in his influential work (1974 ) that reasons for wanting protection are just as strong if the word `user ‘ is replaced by the word `program . This advocates that subjects in a protection system should be applications instead of users . In fact , enforcing protection on a per-application as opposed to a per-user basis agree with well to the principle of least privilege (Saltzer , 1974 , which states that a user or program should operate with the fewest privileges necessary to accomplish the task at hand . It is usually the case that a user ‘s applications require different privileges as they act on different data for different purposes . Assigning all applications the full set of the user ‘s privileges mean they often operate with unnecessary privileges , reducing the security of the system

Basic Principles of Information Protection

General Observations

As computers become better understood and more cost-effective , every day brings new applications . Many of these new applications involve both storing information and simultaneous use by several individuals . The key concern is the multiple uses . For those applications in which all users should not have identical authority , some scheme is needed to ensure… [banner_entry_footer]

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