Essay Title: 

PSYCHOLOGY

March 21, 2016 | Author: | Posted in education, education theories

Compare and contrast two model of Intelligence

Intelligence is a single , pure ability that varies in amount . There are two major approaches to defining intelligence . One group looks at the factors of which intelligence is composed . Another group looks at the nature of intellectual processes themselves

G- factor theory is the name given to the theoretical position that intelligence is composed of single , unitary , or general factor . Charles Spearman pioneered the use of factor analysis in the field of psychology and is sometimes credited with the invention of factor analysis . He [banner_entry_middle]

developed a model where all variation in intelligence test scores can be explained by two factors . The first is the factor specific to an individual mental task : the individual abilities that would make a person more skilled at one cognitive task than another . The second is g a general factor that governs performance on all cognitive tasks Spearman ‘s theory proved too simple , however , as it ignored group factors in test scores (corresponding to broad abilities such as spatial visualization , memory and verbal ability ) that may also be found through factor analysis

Howard Gardner (1983 , 1993 , and 1999 ) has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences according to which intelligence comprises not just a single entity , but also multiple ones , including linguistic logical-mathematical , spatial , bodily kinesthetic , musical interpersonal , intrapersonal , and naturalist intelligences . In developing his theory , Gardner (1983 ) attempted to rectify some of the errors of earlier psychologists who “all ignored biology all failed to come to grips with the higher levels of creativity and all were insensitive to the range of roles highlighted in human society . Gardner do not locate talents completely within the human skull , preferring to construe all accomplishments as an interaction between cognitive potentials on the one hand , and the resources and opportunities provided by the surrounding culture on the other . All intellectual and creative work takes place within some kind of social discipline , craft , or organized activity , termed a domain . Accordingly , there is no sense in which one can speak about a person as being intelligent , or creative , in general . For example , when you write a , you are using primarily linguistic intelligence . When you solve calculus or other mathematical problems , you are using primarily logical-mathematical intelligence When you try to figure out why you procrastinate in your work , you are using intrapersonal intelligence . Gardner has also speculated as to the existence of existential and spiritual intelligences . According to Gardner , each of these multiple intelligences is more or less independent of the others . Conventional tests of intelligence measure primarily linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences , and to some extent spatial intelligence , but ignore the other intelligences Moreover , even the intelligences that are measured are assessed in ways that are very limited , such as through fairly trivial multiple-choice kinds of questions . Thus , these tests can at best give only a limited picture of what children and even adults can do . Gardner looked to develop a theory with multiple intelligences also because he felt that the current psychometric tests… [banner_entry_footer]

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