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March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in business, mathematics and economics



Miguel R . Fernandez

Baywater , WA Australia

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI

This is a field that brings together knowledge from multiple fields of study in endocrinology , immunology , psychology , neurology and other fields (Carlson , 2001 . It has the potential to integrate the systems of the body into a unified view of how the body works and interacts with itself and its environment . PNI is the study of how all these mechanisms and bodily functions interact to produce states of health and disease (Raptor , undated . Petellier (1999 ) has stated that there is however [banner_entry_middle]

br no formal consensus on the actual definition of what constitutes PNI or its research . However , Carlson (2010 , has pointed out that the .study of the interaction between the immune system and behavior (mediated by the nervous system ) is called psychoneuroimmunology (p . 576

Until very recently the dominant paradigm in medicine has been the Cartesian , dualistic view of the body . Medicine operated , and still largely does operate , under the assumption that the mind and the body are separate from one another . This paradigm has influenced western medicine for centuries . However this model has some significant problems . Descartes postulated that the mind and body had no effect on one another and were therefore two discrete systems . Descartes tried to describe both systems in terms of one another . This category (and fundamental ) error made by Descartes fails to take into consideration that there is a link between what we do as corporeal beings , and how that affects our bodily functions (Raptor , undated

The study of PNI brings together information from psychology neurology , endocrinology and immunology , well as others . This makes to study of PNI increasingly difficult because to truly understand PNI one would need a mastery of all these subjects . However , to understand the processes involved and the consequences involved with PNI , a basic knowledge of these systems is all that is required

The systems of the body that relate to PNI

The neural system is perhaps one of the most complex systems in the body . The job of the nervous system is to receive and relay information from the body to the brain and vice versa . The neurons in humans connect and penetrate every square inch (centimeter ) of the body . Once the nerves in the central nervous system are laid down they do not divide and cannot be replaced . Nerves communicate and transfer information by using neurotransmitters . These specialized biochemicals allow certain neurons to fire in certain ways . A nerve receives a signal and propagates that signal to the next neuron by using these neurotransmitters at the synaptic gap between the nerves (Raptor undated

The existence of a communication system between the immune system and the nervous system has been suggested by the discovery of nerve endings in the thymus , spleen , and bone marrow . This is significant because much of the activity of the immune system starts in these areas There is also a connection between the nervous system and the cells of the immune system . Particular immune cells called lymphocytes , have… [banner_entry_footer]

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