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second language acquisition

March 18, 2016 | Author: | Posted in linguistics, literature and language




Factors Of Language Acquisition

Socio-Psychological Aspects In Second Language Acquisition

Effective Domain , Cognitive Styles And Multiple Intelligences In Second Language Acquisition




Learning a second language in adolescence or adulthood often proves a serious challenge for people . To realize what difficulties are involved in the process , researchers need to examine first of all factors of language acquisition , including contextual , social , and psychological ones . Popular theories of effective domain , cognitive styles and multiple intelligences in second language acquisition can [banner_entry_middle]

also shed light on the dynamics and causes of the process


Second language acquisition can be influenced by a variety of factors

Language Distance : learners will find it easier to master the language that is genealogically related to their own than one that has a different alphabet , grammar , vocabulary etc . Thus , it is easier for a German to pick up English than for a Chinese person . The Defense Language Institute in Monterey , California , introduced a system in which languages are placed in four categories depending on their average learning difficulty from the perspective of a native English speaker (Walqui , 2000

Native language proficiency : The better the student is acquainted with the academic learning of the mother tongue , its grammatical features and various academic refinements , the easier it will be to master a forein language (Walqui , 2000

Language Attitudes : It is necessary to understand how a person perceives learning a new language . Thus , students need to understand that learning a second language does not mean giving up one ‘s first language or dialect (Walqui , 2000

Motivation : Motivation , connected to language attitudes , means that students with more enthusiasm for learning will acquire language more quickly


Apart from contextual and other factors , there are also factors directly related to social and psychological aspects of personal development Each individual comes to language learning equipped with a certain set of psychological and social characteristics that directly affect this person ‘s process of language acquisition . Among others , there are the following factors that have direct impact on language learning

Age : Although this is debatable , many linguists believe in Noam Chomsky ‘s Universal Grammar theory that posits the presence of a special language learning ability that allows a human to acquire a variety of languages as mother tongues (bilingualism ) if this happens before a certain age . Similarly , many researchers of the second language acquisition process believe that there is a biological timetable for optimal language learning that stymies the efforts of adolescents and young adults to acquire language (Clyne , n .d ,

. 1

An Affective Filter : Stephen Krashen has advanced a theory according to which second language acquisition is guided by an affective filter that includes the variables of motivation , anxiety and self-confidence (Clyne , n .d ,

. 2

Language Shock : a concept advanced by John Shulmann meaning the fear of making a fool of oneself when attempting to communicate in a second language (Clyne , n .d ,

. 3 . This shock can seriously… [banner_entry_footer]

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