Essay Title: 

Second Language Teaching

March 21, 2016 | Author: | Posted in linguistics, literature and language

p Second Language Teaching 2006

Introduction of the second foreign language means , that the education becomes multilingual : the native language , the first foreign the second foreign form the unique linguistic phenomenon – a try-glossia . At the same time , as the teaching of any language is inextricably related with culture of the country of the investigated language , it is lawful to speak about studying of the second foreign language at school as about a phenomenon of poly-cultural formation education

First of all , it is necessary to define conditions of teaching the [banner_entry_middle]

second foreign language , key parameters of a rate of the second foreign language , to solve the problem of the main aim and the accompanying purposes of teaching the second foreign language . For development of an adequate technique of teaching conditions of school it is necessary for second foreign language to give the argued answers to the following questions : what conditions of teaching the second foreign language and what is the priority of teaching second foreign language

Definition and the formulation of the purpose of educational methods of the second foreign language in a comprehensive school is represented by the basic moment in development of all complex of problems of studying the second foreign language at school

The purpose of teaching the second foreign language , as it is known , concerns to a number of base categories of this teaching . The purpose defines the character of all other components of the studying process , namely strategy and tactics of studying and the set of tasks as well . Therefore , the main requirement to the purposes of teaching the second foreign language should be their unconditional realness and attainability

The main goal of teaching the second foreign language can be defined as follows : formation among students of ability , readiness and desire to participate in the intercultural communications and perfect themselves in the area of communicative activity . The intercultural motivation is an adequate social interaction of two or more participants of the communicative act – representatives of different linguistic cultures realizing their distinction . From here the purpose of teaching second foreign language represents a complex and developed set of actions , referring not only communicative , but also the intercultural competence . In the given purpose two aspects are allocated : pragmatic and pedagogical

The pragmatic aspect of the purpose of teaching the second foreign language is connected with formation among students of the communicative competence allowing them to use the second foreign language according to their real both actual needs and interests

The given level of possession of the communicative competence assumes the formation of the following students ‘ skills (or language arts

-knowledge of the whole structure of the second foreign language and skills in operating the language both in written and dialogue form

-communicative skills , i .e . skills which are helpful to understand and generate the statement in the second foreign language taking into consideration a concrete sphere , subjects and a situation of dialogue

The above skills are necessary to provide the following ability among students

-to establish (in the oral and written form ) and keep in touch with the partner on dialogue , to inform and request the information of various volume and character , to express thoughts logically and consistently and to react adequately to the partner on dialogue ‘s statements

-to use various strategies of extraction of the information from the sounding or written text and to interpret the received information

As to the pedagogical aspect of the purpose of teaching the second foreign language , it concerns the further perfection of language abilities among students , development of abilities to understand a generality and distinction of native culture and cultures of the countries of the first and second languages . When teaching the second foreign language it is necessary to remember that students expand their individual picture of the world due to familiarizing with the culture of carriers of this language , with their spiritual heritage , specific ways of achievement of intercultural mutual understanding . Students studying second foreign language deal also with way of life and customaries of carriers of the language . Thus in the consciousness of the students a synthesis of knowledge about specificity of their native culture culture of the first and second languages and about a generality of cultures and the communications takes place . Due to this students ‘ minds form their own critical view regarding another way of life of the carriers of the language Proceeding from all stated , we formulate two priority purposes of teaching the second foreign language

1 ) The cognitive-communicative purpose

2 ) The cognitive-developing purpose

Realization of the cognitive-communicative purpose consists first of all in reading by students authentic foreign texts . Teaching concerns also to area of the cognitive-communicative purpose in a complex to other kinds of communicative activity (audition , speaking writing ) during realization of the main component – to read authentic foreign texts

The second purpose cognitive-developing – is inextricably related with the first one and practically realized during training to skill to read authentic texts as reading develops cognitive abilities of students , appreciably renders on their intellectual and emotional interaction . Thus , the essence of the cognitive-developing purpose of teaching the second foreign language is that its studying develops intellectual and speech abilities of pupils , their attention to language forms of expression of idea in foreign and native languages aggravates

During teaching the second foreign language a range of specific targets of a separate lesson , a series of lessons must be aimed . Thus , the consecutive resolving of intermediate tasks during all period of teaching provides performance of the purposes examined here

We understand the principles of teaching as the basic scientifically proved positions on which process of training of the second foreign language is under construction , aimed on formation at the pupil of ability to the intercultural communications

The following basic methodical principles of teaching the second foreign language can be referred here

1 . Teaching of the second foreign language has strongly emphasized personal orientation

It means that at construction of the educational process the individual picture of the world , motives , social-cultural programs of development emotions and mood , actual interests and needs influence strongly the mode of teaching

2 . Teaching of the second foreign language is a cognitive process

Realization of the given principle assumes not only and not so much finding by students of new means of language codes , but the formation in students ‘ minds of a picture of the country whose language they are studying . Hence , the second language should not be taught as formal system . To teach language means to teach also the culture of its carrier . It is necessary to provoke interest to the phenomena of mentality , form skills to compare them with the students experience and their picture of the world

3 . Teaching of the second foreign language is a creative process

According to this principle the face-to-face work is reduced to a minimum . Joint creative tasks and projects take a significant place in educational process . The pupil should have opportunity during the decision of those or other communicative tasks to realize their own intentions as well . In educational process the situations allowing to the pupil independently to transfer the before acquired knowledge skills and skills in a new context of their use should be created . Thus the teaching of the second foreign language is subject not to mechanical mastering only but both creative processing

4 . The teaching of the second foreign language should have active character which is expressed in external and internal (intellectual activity of students

Realization of the given principle promotes creation in educational process of conditions , in which

-students study within adequate expression of complex ideas and conditions with reference to the purposes , conditions and participants of dialogue

-dialogue is organically intertwined in an intellectual – emotional context of other activity of pupils

-inter-subject connections are consistently realized

-each student has opportunities to show his imagination , creativity activity and independence

-each action has deep personal sense for a student

5 . Teaching of the second foreign language is directed towards the formation of autonomy of the student in educational activity and in the intercultural communications

Realization of the given principle assumes training students in various strategies of studying language . Teaching of the second foreign language should stimulate high personal motivation of pupils

6 . Teaching of the second foreign language has a strongly pronounced communicative orientation

Educational process is organized as the communicative activity which is coming nearer on the basic parameters to real intercultural dialogue . It means , that educational process is directed not towards the formation of isolated skills understanding “speaking “reading “writing ” but on development of the communicative competence integrating them . Thus it is important to create in educational process motives for each speech and nonverbal action of students

7 . Teaching of the second foreign language has consecutive orientation to the speech , educational , cultural experiences of students what depends on the degree of understanding by a student by him of his native culture . In other words the principle comparison of semantic nuances search of lexical equivalents , translation on native and the first foreign languages make regular attraction of associations from native and the first foreign languages . The account of strategy of the oral and written dialogue generated on the basis of native and first foreign languages allows plan the process of teaching the second foreign language intensively and economically

The principles are the most helpful methodical principles as to the teaching of the second foreign languages . They are the most helpful when speaking about formation of proper language arts among students . Regarding the literature program , when teaching the second foreign language , it is well known that the common list of literature to be read for developing second language skills includes the most classical and outstanding literature patterns . English language arts include reading , writing , speaking , listening and the study of literature . In addition , students must be able to study , retain and use information from many sources . Through the study of the English language arts , students must read fluently , understand the basic part of written materials . Students are required to be able to communicate well and perceive the speaking effectively . They must develop a command of the language and demonstrate their knowledge through speaking and writing The detailed study of literature (in second language ) will permit them to deal successfully with universal themes and to be able to distinguish different authors and literature genres

So , in the first part of this research the most common and necessary points of second language teaching have been discussed . But it is also well-known that the principles of second language teaching (like any other teaching principles ) can differ depending on the country and nation where this teaching takes place . Hong-Kong – the place where the East meets the West , where English language due to economical reasons has become an official language – are the above mentioned principles of teaching second foreign language valid in Hong-Kong as well . There is quite a clear answer on this question

First of all it is necessary to point out what Hong-Kong ‘s language is . Hong-Kong belongs to Asia according to its geographical characteristics . Now days when the worldwide business community acquires the most of their goods turnover in the East due to its cheap labor force , Hong-Kong also becomes a hub of West-East business relationships . English is the language of the world-wide business relationships . So , the main reason of studying English in Hong-Kong is , first of all , the necessity to be able to know English as the way for earning money . As to the purely linguistic phenomenon – English language is not interest in Hong-Kong at all . Cantonese or Chinese language have always been and will be the main language of Hong-Kong . English in Hong-Kong is considered to be the low-standard English and there are many factors proving that . The quantity of hours dedicated to English language teaching has not increased (but has even decreased ) during last forty years (see Appendix . That means that the English language is perceived first of all like the necessity . Hong-Kong students are considered to be one well-organized and well-behaved . But they study English rather superficially . The most necessary thing for Hong-Kong when studying English as the second language is to get known the most common grammar rules and to learn communicating within the dialogue conditions . Below the comparison between main points of studying English as second language in Hong-Kong and in Europe are given

European English Hong-Kong English

Grammar : Present Simple , Past Simple Present Simple , Past Simple

Present Continuous , Past Continuous Present Continuous , Present Perfect

Present Perfect , Past Perfect Future Simple

Future Simple , Future Perfect

Lexis : the most common s everyday life , politics , industry

everyday life (so-called street dialogues business

politics cinema , theatre , sport , history

Phonetics : the listening and understanding of the speech the most common notion regarding

the close approaching to the English pronouncing English phonetic rules

As to the literary it is also possible to carry out a comparison . The literary program of English as second language in European countries always includes the whole range of English author ‘s works . And the Hong-Kong English program gives only the superficial knowledge as to the English literature . It pays most attention to the pragmatic role of the language . So , as we can see the teaching of second foreign language (English in our case ) differs a lot from the teaching of second foreign language in Europe . That can be easily explained – Hong-Kong English is very pragmatic while the teaching of English in Europe is more classic and traditional


Implementation of Mother-Tongue Teaching in Hong Kong Secondary Schools Some Recent Reports (Christy Ying Lao , Krashen Stephen , 1999 School Level Language of Instruction 1960-1997 ) After 1997

Primary English medium

Cantonese medium 5-10

90-95 Less than 10

Greater than 95

Secondary English medium

Cantonese medium 60-90

10-40 25


University English medium

Cantonese medium 80-86

14-20 86


Bibliography Howatt , A . A history of English language teaching . Oxford : Oxford University Press , 1984

Celce-Murcia , M (Ed . Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language . Boston : Newbury House , 1991

Krashen , S .D . Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning Oxford : Pergamon , 1981

Canale , M . and Swain , M . Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing . Applied Linguistics 1 (1980 1-47

Coady , J , Huckin , T . Second language vocabulary acquisition : A rationale for pedagogy . New York : Cambridge University Press , 1997

Schmitt , M . Vocabulary in Language Teaching . Cambridge University Press 2000

Dickey , Robert . New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms ‘ 2002 . ELT Book Review , Kyongju University , Korea 11 June , 2006

Christy Ying Lao , Krashen Stephen Discover . 1999 . Implementation of Mother-Tongue

Teaching in Hong Kong Secondary Schools : Some Recent Reports ‘1999 Discover web-site . 12 June , 2006 PAGE

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