Essay Title: 

States and Social Structures: Egypt (Security Studies/Political Science)

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in american history, history

States and Social Structures





States and Social Structures : Egypt

Part I . The Security Record of Mubarak ‘s Regime : 1981-2006


After Anwar Sadat ‘s assassination in 1981 , his successor and the current President , Muhammad Hosni Mubarak , the head of the Egyptian Air Force during the 1973 War , inherited some of the Nasser ‘s era characteristics and almost all those of Sadat ‘s regime . Mubarak began his tenure by releasing political detainees who had been arrested by Sadat in the month preceding his assassination [banner_entry_middle]

. During his first years in office Mubarak represented himself as an advocate of democracy . In 1982 , he was quoted as saying “democracy is the best guarantee of our fixture ” and he had “no wish to monopolize decision-making (Kassem , 2004 ,


He also announced his disapproval of long-term presidential rule . In 1984 , he said “I believe that the assumption of the office of the presidency by anyone of us should not exceed two terms ” And he added “I will be the first president to whom this rule shall apply (Kassem 2004 ,

.26 ) Nevertheless , after 25 years of Mubarak ‘s rule , it is hard to characterize Egypt ‘s political system as democratic one , because the regime suffers from a legitimacy crisis , and there have been many restrictions or barriers to democracy in Egypt

President ‘s Broad Mandate

According to the 1971 Constitution , which remains in effect , the president enjoys wide mandates compared to the legislative and judicial branches . There are no checks and balances on these powers . The president is nominated by two-thirds of the People ‘s Assembly , and endorsed in a plebiscite that allows only for a simple “Yes ” or “No ” To win a six-year term , only a simple majority of the voters is required The presidency can be renewed indefinitely by the same process . These lax procedures contrast with the president ‘s powers . The president is the head of state and commander-in-chief has control over the Cabinet of Ministers , the Supreme Council of Police , the Supreme Council of Judiciary can appoint and recall one vice-president or more , the prime minister and senior ministers and must approve all other ministers ambassadors and state representatives . He can call for elections declare war , impose a state of emergency , and can issue decrees that have the force of law (Kassem , 2004

In the constitution , Article 85 specifies that an accusation that the president committed grand treason or any other criminal act “may be made upon a motion submitted by at least one-third of the members of the People ‘s Assembly and approved by two-thirds . Then , the president should be suspended from carrying out his responsibilities and the vice-president should fill in until the issue is resolved (Kassem 2004 ,

.23 ) Yet , in reality the president ‘s party (NDP ) has a solid control over the parliament , and President Mubarak has never appointed a vice-president , despite repeated popular demands to do so . As one observer noted “the result has been a de facto “imperial presidency with Mubarak… [banner_entry_footer]

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