The life and the teachings of Jesus
THE GOSPEL OF JOHN
St John the Evangelist , the beloved Apostle of Jesus , was the son of Zebedee and brother of St . James the Great . John was the youngest of the apostles , and he defined himself as the disciple whom Jesus loved According to tradition , in 49 AD , John settled at Ephesus , where the witnessed the assumption of the Virgin Mary . From there he was exiled to the Island of Patmos , where he wrote the Book of Revelation . A few years later , he returned to Ephesus , where he wrote three letters , which [banner_entry_middle]
contain the sublime definition of the divinity : God is love . There he also wrote the 4th gospel , whose sublime theology was represented in art as an eagle
As to the date of its composition , there ‘s still no certain historical information . According to the general opinion , the Gospel is to be referred to the last decade of the first century , or to be still more precise , to 96 or one of the succeeding years . The grounds for this opinion are briefly as follows : 1 )The Fourth Gospel was composed after the three Synoptics 2 )It was written after the death of Peter , since the last chapter – especially xxi , 18-19 presupposes the death of the Prince of the Apostles 3 )It was also written after the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple , for the Evangelist ‘s references to the Jews (cf . particularly xi , 18 xviii , 1 xix , 41 ) seem to indicate that the end of the city and of the people as a nation is already come 4 )The text of xxi , 23 , appears to imply that John was already far advanced in years when he wrote the Gospel 5 )Those who denied the Divinity of Christ , the very point to which St . John devotes special attention throughout his Gospel , began to disseminate their heresy about the end of the first century 6 )Finally , the so-called “Monarchian Prologue ” to the Fourth Gospel , which was probably written about the year 200 or a little later , says concerning the date of the appearance of the Gospel “He [sc . the Apostle John] wrote this Gospel in the Province of Asia after he had composed the Apocalypse on the Island of Patmos . The banishment of John to Patmos occurred in the last year of Domitian ‘s reign (i .e . about 95 . A few months before his death (18 September , 96 the emperor had discontinued the persecution of the Christians and recalled the exiles (Eusebius “Hist . eccl , III , xx , nn . 5-7 . This evidence would therefore refer the composition of the Gospel to A .D . 96 or one of the years immediately following
The authenticity of the Fourth Gospel was scarcely ever seriously questioned until the end of the eighteenth century . Evanson (1792 ) and Bretschneider (1820 ) were the first to run counter to tradition in the question of the authorship , and , since David Friedrich Strauss (1834-40 adopted Bretschneider ‘s views and the members of the T ‘bingen School , in the wake of Ferdinand Christian Baur… [banner_entry_footer]
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