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Ultra thin sectioning and confocal microscope examinations to assess the distribution of P2X2 receptor subunit immunoreactivity in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the rat and its colocalization with different neurochemical markers in the DVC and sens

March 21, 2016 | Author: | Posted in health and medicine, pharmacology

Introduction

P2X receptors are membrane ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular ATP . Seven genes in vertebrates encode P2X receptor subunits , which are 40-50 identical in amino acid sequence Each subunit has two transmembrane domains , separated by an extracellular domain (approximately 280 amino acids (North , 2002

These receptors belong to the family of cation channels plays a significant role in the function of the peripheral and central nervous system is gated by Adenosine 5 ‘-triphosphate (ATP

The first indication of a transmitter role for Adenosine 5 [banner_entry_middle]

?-triphosphate (ATP ) in the nervous system was presented 40 years ago with the demonstration of ATP release from sensory nerves during antidromic stimulation (Holton , 1959 . ATP can function as a fast synaptic transmitter through its actions on ionotropic (P2X ) and metabotropic (P2Y ) receptors in neuronal tissue . It is now well accepted that ATP is involved in cell to cell communication in the peripheral nervous system (for review , see Dubyak and el-Moatassim , 1993 Burnstock , 1999 . However , ATP-mediated fast neurotransmission has only recently been described in the CNS (Edwards et al , 1992 bardoni et al , 1997 Nieber et al , 1997 Pankratov et al , 1998 , 1999 Robertson 1998 ) although its role is not yet well understood . Purinergic P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP ) and are widely expressed not only in the central and peripheral nervous system but also in tissues throughout the body , playing an important role in the transfer of nociceptive information (Kitahara et al ,2003

The distribution of the P2X2 purinoceptor subunit protein which permeates cationic ions in response to stimulation by ATP and mediates fast synaptic transmission was examined in the adult rat and guinea-pig cerebellum using two novel antisera generated against separate 18 amino acid sequences located in the predicted extracellular domain of this subunit , the results revealed the existence of P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity in the soma and dendrites , neurons in the granular and molecular layers of purkinje cells and in deep cerebellar nuclei as well (Kanjhan et al , 1996

-triphosphate (ATP )-gated ion channels was examined in the adult rat central nervous system (CNS ) by using P2X2 receptor-specific antisera and riboprobe-based in situ hybridisation . P2X2 receptor mRNA expression matched the P2X2 receptor protein localisation . An extensive expression pattern was observed , including : olfactory bulb , cerebral cortex hippocampus , habenula , thalamic and subthalamic nuclei , caudate putamen posteromedial amygdalo-hippocampal and amygdalo-cortical nuclei substantia nigra pars compacta , ventromedial and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei , supraoptic nucleus , tuberomammillary nucleus , mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus , dorsal raphe , locus coeruleus , medial parabrachial nucleus , tegmental areas , pontine nuclei , red nucleus , lateral superior olive , cochlear nuclei , spinal trigeminal nuclei , cranial motor nuclei ventrolateral medulla , area postrema , nucleus of solitary tract , and cerebellar cortex . In the spinal cord , P2X2 receptor expression was highest in the dorsal horn , with significant neuronal labeling in the ventral horn and intermediolateral cell column . The identification of extensive P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity and mRNA distribution within the CNS demonstrated here provides a basis for the P2X receptor antagonist pharmacology reported in… [banner_entry_footer]

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