Essay Title: 

Voice Over IP

March 24, 2016 | Author: | Posted in modern technologies, technology

Running Head : VOIP communication risks and potentials

Voice over Internet Protocol communication risks and potentials

William Jones

The Name of the Course

Your Instructor ‘s Name

CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORSHIP : I certify that I am the author . I have cited all sources from which I used data , ideas , or words , either quoted directly or paraphrased . I also certify that this was prepared by me specifically for this course


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Table of Contents

Abstract br . 3

Introduction br . 4

What Makes Up VOIP [banner_entry_middle]

How VOIP Developed Review of Related Literature . 8

Quality Price Security Regulation Methodology br . 14

Qualitative Assessment Methodology Quantitative Assessment Methodology Valuation of Assessments Results br . 17

Qualitative Assessment Quantitative Assessment Methodology Conclusion and Future Trends . 32

References br . 37 Abstract

Voice over Internet Protocol is the subject of a lot of interest in the information and telecommunications (IT ) industry today . It promises to mitigate communication costs , enhance performance and improve Technological capacities . The major issues in VOIP services and usage today are quality , price , security and regulation . This studies the degree by which these factors affect perception of VOIP services and quantifies the cost of setting up and maintaining VOIP communication systems . The concludes that VOIP is still in its early development stages . It will need to be able to effectively meet quality , price security and regulation requirements before it becomes a universal means of communications


Conventional voice communications utilize the process of circuit switching or a constant flow over an open circuit from one point to another and rates depended on the length of circuits and duration of call and though communication systems . The industry has made the change to digital circuits but the same principle of circuit switching followed in analog systems still hold true for digital systems (Biddlecombe 2005

Current telephone networks utilized Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN ‘s . PSTN ‘s can be considers as large industrial scale circuit switches . Today , they are the infrastructure of digital landline telephony all over the world ( Voice over IP : Technical Issues 2002

What Makes Up VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP or VoIP ) is revolutionizing these traditional voice communication systems with its utilization of internet protocol to convert analog audio signal into digital information communicated via internet (Lawson , 1988

Internet Protocol (IP ) was initially a tool to facilitate data network management and efficiency and quickly became an Information Technology (IT ) standard because of its success (Tech FAQ , 2006 . VOIP is a voice adaptation of the technology , revolutionizing the hundred year old circuit switching communication systems (Charny , 2004

VOIP allows for several ways to make calls (Valdes , 2006

ATA (analog telephone adaptor ) – ATA makes available VOIP connection using typical telephone units with a computer or an internet connection Vonage and AT T CallVantage are trying to create ATA ‘s as part of their future standard services

IP Phones – These are phones specifically designed for IP use and look like typical telephone units but having RJ-25 Ethernet connectors instead of a typical telephone ‘s RJ-11 connectors . IP phones are connected directly routers and are equipped with the hardware and software to handle IP calls . Wi-Fi IP phones are now being developed to utilize Wi-Fi hot spots to start set up mobile IP phone services

Computer-to-computer – Among the ways to make calls using VOIP , computer to computer calls do not need additional services of telecommunications companies . All that is needed is a high speed internet connection and VOIP software . Several free and low-cost soft wares readily available in the market

PSTN to VoIP connection can be done either by DID (Direct Inward Dialing ) or the utilization of access numbers . DID connect the caller directly to the VOIP users . On the other hand , the use of access numbers needs for callers to key in extension access numbers to reach the VOIP user . DID ‘s are typical subscription based services and access number use entails charges typically borne by the PSTN callers ( Voice over IP , 2006

According to Biddlecombe (2005 , voice data is broken into packets and the audio information can be modeled through a digital signal processor (DSP . The packetised ‘ information then travels through an IP-based network as a typical data stream . The packets do not follow uniform paths and may take diverse node routes over the network and are only out together at the termination point where they merge into the original voice data (Samahon , 1999

. 494

VOIP quality is dependent on the IP bandwidth that packets travel on and traffic within the channels . Howard Frazier , Chief Technical Officer of Dominet Systems and Chair of the IEEE Ethernet , says that “The grandiose picture that I draw is that if you have enough bandwidth coming into people ‘s homes , and small businesses , and you can supply all their needed data telecommunications services to them in the form of IP packets over Ethernet then we get to the situation where Ethernet and IP become like a utility (COOK Report , 2001

Another important element of VOIP is the efficiency of routers . IP packets are formed as routers split digital data and information streams into appropriate sized units . The routers then assigns on the packet address fields two key information : the initiating address and the destination address . The next step is forwarding the packets appropriately to its destination . Routers monitor each other to assess data and packet congestion and chooses the appropriately the most efficient to use . Packets may lag as they arrive at their destinations but transmission control protocols (TCP ‘s ) organizes them for coherence (Biddlecombe , 2005

How VOIP Developed

The basic technology has been available for a number of years already but businesses have not fully utilized VOIP because it was viewed to be a highly technical communication system (Korzeniowski , 1998 . However analysts are very optimistic regarding its prospects because of its cost-effective and networking capabilities (Leavitt , 1999

Similar to the development of the internet , VOIP has been available for a long time but was used mainly as an internal networking system or tool before it found its mass application (Gribble , 2006 . According to Wallingford (2005 , VOIP was first hyped to challenge existing long distance call services in the 1990 ‘s . CUSeeMe and NetMeeting were among the first to offer VOIP services . VOIP did not become a success at this point primarily because of the lack of broadband infrastructure to support it . Without the scale of information exchange that broadband affords , service providers could not provide the needed voice quality

Interest in VOIP found its resurgence as world wide broadband and high speed internet technologies grew in 2000 (Dean , 2003 . Developers focused on creating technologies to maximize the magnitude of bandwidths that have become available . However , development seemed too focused on utilizing high bandwidth video and data and few voice applications were introduced to the market (Iwatsu Voice Networks , 2006

Beginning 2004 , mass-market VOIP services were introduced for the mass market . Services offered were similar to Plain Old Telephone System (POTS ) but also featured the introduction of ATA ‘s ( Voice over IP 2006 . In the fall of 2005 , VOIP became the year ‘s IT development highlight with the introduction of Skype , a freeware VoIP program (Wallingford , 2005 . Skype has been said to have been one of the primary reasons of VOIP popularity today

According to a research done by Telephia , leading VOIP service providers in the United States are Vonage , ViaTalk , Verizon VoiceWing , AT T CallVantage , SunRocket , Lingo , NetZero , BroadVoice , America Online Packet8 , and Earthlink ( Voice over IP , 2006 . Popular online free communication and internet services have also incorporated VOIP Microsoft ‘s Window Messenger Live , Yahoo ‘s Yahoo Messenger with Voice and Google ‘s Google Talk

Corporate and business use of VOIP to benefit from data abstraction wire taps and monitoring is exigent because of the technology that VOIP uses (Keegan , 1994 . Another benefit of using the technology is the optimization of circuit connection and maximization of bandwidth capabilities . Third party costs can be limited by creating dedicated gateways . Telecommunication companies in particular have utilized VOIP to optimize their operations using it to traffic PSTN calls locally and internationally . IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS ‘s ) have allowed the incorporation of internet technologies into current systems as well facilitated the actual interface of VOIP infrastructure with PSTN and mobile phones ( Voice over IP , 2006

Review of Related Literature

The Forrester Research Group estimates VOIP will be part of 5 Million U .S . homes by the conclusion of 2006 (Valdes , 2006 . The major issues in VOIP services and usage today are quality , price , security and regulation


According to Paul Travis (2005 , VOIP quality and reliability has improved greatly because of improvements in networking hardware software and the speed on internet connections . It has resulted with audibility , reliability and integrity of voice communications . Posey (2006 ) points out that VOIP quality is vulnerable to latency . He explains that for VOIP quality and reliability is directly proportional to the availability of bandwidth . Manufacturers , service providers and soft wares have to take initiatives to reduce VOIP bandwidth requirements if it is to be able to not only to ensure quality and reliability but also to increase its use worldwide

Figure 2 compares the quality and reliability of VOIP calls and public network calls between New York and San Francisco . Though VOIP has yet to attain the reliability and quality of conventional telephone systems , it offers significant advantages in terms of cost and network infrastructure . Packet loss , delay and jitter are aggravated when voice traffic become exposed to other packets especially in the IP in use is the internet . Packet loss becomes and there currently no solution to this problem (Biddlecombe , 2005 Another feature that can enhance the quality of VOIP is its ability to converge with existing and developing communication systems (COOK Report , 2001 . Cisco , Foundry Networks , Nortel and other network hardware manufacturers follow common quality-of-service (QoS ) standards allowing corporate to create proficient convergence of voice and data Convergence will allow cost effectiveness , modernization of telephony features and network synthesis for companies (Wallingford , 2005


Pricing of comprehensive services is going down with more service providers competing in the market which is to the significant benefit of service users as has been shown by the increasing shift from private branch exchange servers (PBX ‘s ) to IP based PBX (IP PBX . This is one of the motivations for entry by telecommunications heavyweights like AT T into the market (Growth Business , 2005 . Leo Judge , MIS Director of The Money Station Inc , their company ‘s motivation in using VOIP is going around the cost of telephony between their four offices , acquiring an efficient remote system management network and providing employees mobility (Rendon 2002

VOIP cost is not limited to the actual use of the technology only According to a BuyerZone (2005 , cost of utilizing VOIP also involves

Installation or upgrades needed for computer and network VOIP

Charges for making calls outside VOIP network or other subscription for VOIP service

Increase in utility charges such as power , internet service or maintenance charges

Training and orientation of employees on VOIP use


A holdup to VOIP popular use is the concerns regarding security Security assault to undermine underlying network , the transport protocols , the VoIP devices such as servers and gateways , software or application , configurations , protocols and operating systems are real threats to VOIP users . The features of the technology employed often influence security expectations and concerns (Marsan , 2006 . Typical attacks on confidentiality are prevailing risks to be expected and security features should be adequately developed . Intrinsic system or application weaknesses , inadequate configuration and implementation are still continuous concerns (Biddlecombe , 2005

According to Siemens Enterprise Communications (2006 , companies have different security needs . Off the shelf VOIP security will inevitably have security loopholes . Considering Siemen ‘s analysis of system involved in VOIP (see Figure 3 , it proposed that security strategy should be woven into the VOIP networks from the very start . The layered security architecture model suggests security specific for each ring

According to Stan Quintana , Managed Security Services Vice President for AT T customers still view security and its management to be important factors to consider in VOIP (Marsan , 2005 . Potential risks associated with VOIP . VOIP direct attacks have been rare but this should not mislead the measures are too much (Samahon , 1999 ) or too little (Sicker Lookabaugh , 2004 ) may be still subject to debate but the rate of developments in VOIP use and application must be supported by institution of safeguards as well


Government regulation and monitoring has become the controversial issue concerning VOIP . According to the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC ) Chairman Michael Powell “The Commission is not simply considering minor adjustments to specific regulations – the Commission is considering the future of electronic and optic communications for many years to come (LeClaire , 2004 . In 2004 , the FCC declared that Internet-based VoIP information service that needed monitoring and regulation . The FCC is studying the role it needs to play to protect public and consumer interests with the new communications setting that VOIP technology is creating (FCC , 2006

According to Hickman (1998 , the FCC feels that because service providers ‘ benefit from the networks , monitoring and regulation is a must . A market research done by IDC predicted that by the end of 2003 there would be as many as 16 million IP telephony users in the United States alone (Trager , 1998 . Under the Telecommunications Act of 1995 the FCC has prescribed that VoIP operators support CALEA wiretap functionality ( Voice over IP , 2006 . The Telecommunications Act of 2005 additional regulation that mimics PSTN regulations such as local number portability and standardized service fees (Office of Technology Assessment [OTA] , 1990 Telecommunications Act of 1996 , 2006


To assess the risks involved in switching or using VOIP particularly by small and medium scale enterprises (SME ‘s ) must be done considering both qualitative and quantitative methods

For qualitative assessment , the research will focus valuing of opinions regarding VOIP on the internet . Opinions will be gathered form online publications , blogs or postings on forums , personal publications and studies published . Publications on line will be chosen for study in recognition of the link between VOIP and public IP ‘s such as the internet . A focus group discussion (FGD ) will facilitate analyses and discussion

For the quantitative assessment , cost of setting up a VOIP system for SME ‘s will be evaluated . Costing will consider setup of both software and equipment and all related costs , either directly or indirectly related to VOIP . Risk Assessment will be used as the model of the analysis

The objectives of these assessments are to evaluate the actual cost and savings of VOIP system infrastructure setup either as an initial option for companies or as a switching option . Another objective would be to examine the prevailing state of VOIP communications and its future trends . The gathered information will also give an indication whether regulation is possible or not for VOIP and the significance of its role as revolutionary communication system

Qualitative Assessment Methodology

Selection of Resources

Create a matrix to guide article selection so that online publications blogs , personal postings and studies are represented with the following criteria

No article dated later that October 2005

Authorship is specific

Resource is available online

Evaluate the selected articles by

Degree of relevance of text


As current as possible

Select no more than twelve resources for evaluation ensuring that not more than are written by the same author , same publisher , posted on the same forum or page and same focus of study

Preparation of Material

Reprint the articles in uniformly excluding information regarding authorship and publication before analyses

Number the articles randomly to track them

Prepare a chart to collect information per article per individual

/Thesis of the article

Arguments presented

Impact of content

Selection of Participants

Participants in the FGD possess excessive knowledge of VOIP but be aware of the technology as an informed user

Choose four participants who are not related or known to each other

Orient them on the purpose of the study and the methodology of the FGD

Preparation of Participants

Show that participants the selected articles and ask them to see if they have read any of the articles before

Remove previously read articles from selection

Allow each participant to read articles an fill up chart information


Collect all charted information form each participant

Open FGD discussion by presenting each of the article citing its author and source

Review the charted information and allow watch participant to discuss the information he had written down

Document FGD responses as group responses on a simper chart

Quantitative Assessment Methodology


Cost of hardware , software and network setup

Switching cost

Opportunity cost


Cost of hardware , software and network setup

Evaluate VOIP system and service package rates

Evaluate current telephony or data network alternative costs

Switching cost

Assess cost of changing into VOIP system

Evaluate financial advantages or disadvantages in maintaining VOIP system versus previous standard telephony or data systems

Opportunity cost

Calculate if there is change in business volume

Assess if quality or reliability is compromised

Calculate loss or gained functionality


Assess risk levels and subsequent impact

Consider what factors are key vulnerabilities and quantify risk level


Estimate probabilities of service or functional risk involved

Identify how operations or functions will be affected

Valuation of Assessments

Results of analyses should be presented equally and without prejudice Valuation of results or information is for the purpose of validity and relevance . If there is insufficient data , additional sampling and testing can be done to establish relevance

Both qualitative (FGD ) and quantitative (risk assessment ) will be considered as foundations for the conclusion of the . Aside form using the analyses for conclusion they will also function as benchmarks of each other


Qualitative Assessment

Summary of activities

Pre-FGD Article Evaluation (Article Matrix

Title Year Author Type Publication / Source

Firm Aims to Lower the Cost of VoIP Network Monitoring . 2006 Cole Arthur C . Article TMCNet

How secure is voice over IP ? 2006 Siemens Enterprise Communications Personal posting Siemens Enterprise Communications

How VoIP Works 2006 Valdes , Robert Article How stuff works

New VOIP System Offers System Integration at Lower Cost . 2006 Bordoloi Satyen K Article TMCNet

Telecommunications Act of 1996 2006

Reference Wikipedia

The Pros and Cons of VOIP 2006 Posey , Brien M . Article Windows Networking

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP . 2006 Federal Communications Commission Personal posting Federal Communications Commission

Voice over IP 2006

Reference Wikipedia

Voice Over IP ‘s Quality Surprise 2005 Travis , Paul Article InformationWeek

VoIP security assessment is about to become a must 2006 Marsan , Carolyn Duffy Article Network World

VOIP Security Services Taking Hold 2005 Marsan , Carolyn Duffy Article CIO News

What Is VOIP 2005 Wallingford , Theodore Article O ‘Reilly Media

FGD Article Evaluation

Title Code Included in FGD ? Key Points

Firm Aims to Lower the Cost of VoIP Network Monitoring . 1 Yes Companies are trying to reduce VOIP infrastructure cost and set up Reduction of cost is not just a means to make VOIP more accessible but also to build networks increasing the viability of VOIP as a universal communications system

How secure is voice over IP ? 2 Yes Discusses security of existing VOIP technologies Raises the concerns regarding prevailing security concerns about VOIP and the possible risks involved

How VoIP Works 3 Yes Explains the elements of VOIP technology and operation VOIP is an innovation that maximizes broadband technology and IP networks

New VOIP System Offers System Integration at Lower Cost 4 No Telecommunications Act of 1996 5 Yes Enumerated amendments to US communication regulation that include internet , networks and future telecoms The US government wants to take an active role in managing future communications technologies and is trying to anticipate them Regulation should think about how they are going deal with the demands of new technologies without stifling development at the same time

The Pros and Cons of VOIP 6 Yes Evaluation of the advantages and disadvantage of VOIP The advantages and disadvantages of VOIP are choices or risk that has to assessed by individual companies . VOIP switch or adaptation is not just a question of technology it also should consider closely realties of operations and management

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP . 7 No Voice over IP 8 No Voice Over IP ‘s Quality Surprise 9 Yes Discusses the progress of VOIP in terms of increasing quality and reliability Enumerates that VOIP promises to be a viable technology as the industry develops . Its current rate of development shows its great potential as a replacement of PSTN systems and as soft wares and hardware are becoming more friendly more responsive to the needs of VOIP , we can expect better services in the future

VoIP security assessment is about to become a must 10 Yes Calls for the focus on developing stringent VOIP security in anticipation of malicious and criminal intent There is a real against security risks . One has to consider not only just current vulnerabilities but must also anticipate them as well

VOIP Security Services Taking Hold 11 Yes Discusses the integration of security systems into VOIP technology Security measures are now better anticipating the security needs of VOIP . It is to be anticipated that security are not yet at pace with the rate of development of VOIP since it is still in its growth stage . IT infrastructure innovations as well are needed to support VOIP security

What Is VOIP 12 Yes Defines VOIP , its elements , technology and applications VOIP is a technology that utilizes data networks to carry voice . Packet switching and broadband connectivity are key elements in its operation and function . VOIP promises to be a cost effective communication system

FGD Discussion

Text focus – charts the concepts that are most apparent in the articles studied . Check marks identify the related primary focus of the article and X marks denote secondary focus

p How secure is voice over IP

p How VoIP Works

br New VOIP System Offers System Integration at Lower Cost Telecommunications Act of 1996

p The Pros and Cons of VOIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP

Voice over IP

p Voice Over IP ‘s Quality Surprise VoIP security assessment is about to become a must

p VOIP Security Services Taking Hold

p What Is VOIP

p Valuation of text – each check mark earns 2 points and each x mark earns a point

Title price quality security regulation Firm Aims to Lower the Cost of VoIP Network Monitoring . 2 1 1


How secure is voice over IP

1 2 1 4

How VoIP Works



New VOIP System Offers System Integration at Lower Cost 2 1


Telecommunications Act of 1996

1 1 2 4

The Pros and Cons of VOIP 1 1 2


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP . 1 2 1


Voice over IP

2 1


Voice Over IP ‘s Quality Surprise 1 2


VoIP security assessment is about to become a must

1 2 1 4

VOIP Security Services Taking Hold

1 2 1 4

What Is VOIP

2 1


Current literature content

Current literature present VOIP not as an independent but as it is used in real setting considering external factors affecting it

Current literature have similar relevance in terms of content and vary little despite of their type

Articles seek to provide balanced assessment of VOIP technology going into extremes of opinion

All literature consider VOIP at its early developmental stages

Focus of current literature

The prevailing focus of most of the articles is the emphasis on quality of services

The second major concern is that of security

Quality and security focus are significantly higher in value than all other s in consideration

The least valued is that of regulation

Quantitative Assessment Methodology

For the purpose of the quantitative evaluation , a theoretically company ‘s VOIP expenses for set up will be used as benchmark . The theoretically company has three offices , one in New York , San Francisco Hawaii

It is engaged in the retailing pineapples form Hawaii to supply restaurants in New York and San Francisco . Each of the offices has twenty personnel all have standard computers able to support VOIP operations . The company has an existing broadband connection at 256 kbps . The company uses mainly PSTN phones and has no existing international call subscription service package . The company has an existing PBX system and computers have network access . The company has no existing online retailing system and ing and supplying is done by fax messaging

The company earns a historical average of 100 ,000 dollars a year but has no existing fund reserved for the VOIP installation . The company expects to increase company ‘s productivity by an average 20 from historical average yearly due to the migration to VOIP for the next three years


According to Biddlecombe (2005 , VOIP installation entails investing in hardware , software and internet connection

Hardware cost depends on the size of the organization , the functionality or services needed and the geographic and spatial requirements

LAN , routers , cabling and access points are some of the hardware a VOIP requires

Off the shelf and free programs provide basic functions and VOIP services but may charge for additional services

Charging for local and international calls to non-VOIP phones (PSTN and mobile phones

Charging for fax , FTP and other network functions and management tools

High speed internet connections directly affect quality of VOIP services (Posey , 2006

A company may have to upgrade connection speed since what may be adequate for existing data or PBX needs may not be able to adequately support VOIP

In some countries , VOIP has been placed under restriction when using standard internet services , special connection services may have to be procured even if current bandwidth can already support VOIP

Switching cost

The company was assessed 15 ,000 to set up the main office in Hawaii and the two remote offices in New York and San Francisco (BuyerZone , 2005

The company upgrades to T3 bandwidth 150 a month additional fee to their existing subscription for the next three years

The company had to pay for additional software features to incorporate existing fax systems , one time fee of 250

Opportunity cost

The company shoes to install online retailing as part of its services to maximize bandwidth and expand business operations , setup cost is 5 ,500 with monthly maintenance and support fees of 90

Exposure Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

Installation Package 15 ,000 .00 Additional Bandwidth 1 ,800 .00 1 ,800 .00 1 ,800 .00

Fax System Incorporation 290 .00 Retail System Setup 5 ,500 .00 Support Fee 1 ,080 .00 1 ,080 .00 1 ,080 .00

br 23 ,670 .00 2 ,880 .00 2 ,880 .00


Risk Schedule

Year 1

Target Profit (with 20 growth 120 ,000 .00

Cost of VOIP migration – Year 1 23 ,670 .00

Profit target for the year 143 ,670 .00 Actual increase from average 43 .67

Year 2

Target Profit (with 20 growth 120 ,000 .00

Cost of VOIP operations – Year 2 2 ,880 .00

Profit target for the year 122 ,880 .00 Actual increase from average 22 .88

Year 3

Target Profit (with 20 growth 120 ,000 .00

Cost of VOIP operations – Year 3 2 ,880 .00

Profit target for the year 122 ,880 .00 Actual increase from average 22 .88


The most difficult year to mitigate risk for the company because of the greatest amount of cash outlay . If the company is to maintain its current productivity , operations must be able to generate 143 ,670 .00 in profit for the year

Monetary risk diminishes significantly in Year 1 and 2


Year 1 will mean that the company will be unlikely to meet productivity targets . Since the company already has a standing profit level of 100 ,000 annually the probability will be low that they will be able to meet the new target considering the learning curves still to be mastered with new operations

Cost reduction other than in IT should be part of the agenda to minimize impact on profits

Year 2 and Year 3 will probably be better years for the company . The less additional cost by VOIP will allow it to raging profit it may not have been able to meet in Year 1

Profit levels will be compromised in Year 1 but in Year 2 and Year 3 enhancement profit and operations will be more apparent

The company needs to be able to sustain operations in Year 1 and 2 to support existing operations , additional costs and unrealized profits , if any , from Year 1

Conclusion and Future Trends

Dean (2003 ) suggested that the adaptations of VOIP are for the following reasons

To enhance business efficiency and competitiveness

To be technologically up to date and preserve competitive leverage

To unify voice and data network management

To increase employee productivity

To be cost-effective

The cost effectiveness comes primarily from the companies ability to circumvent telecommunications cost that come in the form of international phone charges and other PSTN related telephony charges Free ‘ VOIP should be thought of not in its literal meaning since there are costs to it energy , broadband connection and hardware and software needed to support VOIP . The real cost benefit of VOIP may actually come from being able to merge data and voice communications into a single network affording the company as whole as well its employees flexibility to stay connected , constantly if needed , in real time

VOIP , like any other technology is a tool . Being so , it can be utilized either for various intentions . It also retains the intrinsic vulnerabilities of IP networks and as there have developed security measure for existing IP networks , so should there be efforts to protect the integrity of VOIP communications . There are existing VoIP security tools and software in the market . Developers should be able to keep in mind the realities of VOIP communications and provide options to personalize security measures as needed by companies (Iwatsu Voice Networks , 2006

VOIP technology is affording better costing alternatives and new revenue streams for companies specially those in telecommunications but it has also created new channels for crimes . According to the Laura Parsky Deputy Assistant Attorney Genera in the US Department of Justice , that VOIP is providing criminals communication alternatives that the government is till unable to monitor to help policing (Keegan , 1994

VOIP was also not been able to match PSTN quality and reliability . The availability of PSTN telephone systems ‘ was ensured by implementing network engineering as well as controlled access to the network . VOIP allows routers to assess routes for the voice packets to go through and when doing so over public IP systems with large number of users lack the Internet , DoS and distributed DoS attacks also become real problems that affect VOIP reliability and quality . Engineers have to formulate techniques to enhance network design and access control

VoIP has to address the issue of security for transmitted messages before it can become universal . The Internet ‘s packet-switched architecture may provide carriers and businesses cost and efficiency advantages but also huge security headaches as well . Along with IPv6 many versions of VoIP software have built-in encryption , offering better security than older implementations (Varshney et al , 2002 . The use of these advanced authentication and authorization techniques ‘ will help address such important security and quality issues of VOIP (se Results . Across the board enhancements in Internet security will help protect VOIP integrity and make it more viable for integration to existing communication systems

VOIP can benefit form the adaptation of common practices that have implemented for the internet such as

Deliberate investment in interoperability and convergence at all levels of the technology

Taking advantage of technical opportunities ‘ in an IP-based network but in fallback-friendly ‘ mode that protects functionality

Sustaining efforts dedicated to software engineering practices that map security and performance in real-time

Leveraging a broad base development for both ideas and programming

Participating in the discussion about social policy and regulatory reform around VoIP (Sicker Lookabaugh , 2004

Creating diversity or services and configurations to their infrastructures to make sure of their abilities in security and develop the ability to safely integrate different components from several vendors through never-ending testing

Establishing cooperative venture involving the service provider vendors , and customers to promote security , quality and development

A fresh move in VOIP development was suggested by Nascimiento et al (2006 . The suggestion involved the utilization of IETF IPSec to enhance confidentiality and security design holes of wireless VoIP networks Their study concluded that a QoS tool based on E-Model is an efficient and objective manner to evaluate the impact of the IPSec on the traffic VoIP . This tool can be easily used in a BSS or PICONET environment where the measurement of speech quality is specially required due to the wireless channel behavior

According to Sims (2004 , CIO-Today noted the Forrester Research that evaluates the pros and cons of VOIP adoption and found out that though VOIP has grown significantly . US households were far less than what was expected or has been apparent in commercial industries , Three percent were using a paid service and 1 percent used a free one . Thirteen percent were interested or very interested . Forrester said pricing is the issue that will get user attention (Sims , 2004 . If households do not become part of VOIP networks , it can severely limit the applications and universality of the technology

The incorporation of VOIP and mobile communications however , could eventually turn the tides for skeptics of VOIP . Mobile VoIP is one of the critical focuses of VOIP development today . The development of mobile communication units that are maximizing new processors that have allowed multimedia functions and increasing availability of access points is fueling this development in VOIP communications . Delivering mobile VoIP will be a revolutionary occasion for the IT industry and will become a realization of true communications mobility

One of the sure things ahead for VOIP is that it will be subject to more speculation and government will try to regulate it more is only to make sure that they are aware of VOIP industry developments . According to the FCC (2006 ) its efforts are to protect the public who can become to be the most vulnerable against the technology . According to Biddlecombe (2005 , VOIP should become real services for real need and real people And VOIP , with its realities and possibilities is worth the risk of incorporation but efforts to utilize VOIP should keep in mind not to use the technology not only for its own sake

VOIP has significant costs and requires long term use for true realization of spending and potential . Risks must calculated with benefits , keeping in mid that these factors may change dynamically in the future as VOIP grows into its role in the It industry


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BuyerZone (2005 . Real-world VOIP phone system rates from BuyerZone buyers . Retrieved on October 5 , 2006 from http /www .buyerzone .com /telecom_equipment /VOIP /bps-VOIP-rates .htm

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Refer to en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Mobile_VoIP for information regarding mobile VOIP ( Mobile VOIP , 2006

To learn more about Skype , refer to product information provided at www .skype .com 6






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Code number is assigned before FGD . and Key Points entries are summaries of FGD discussion

Figures are taken from online quote done by BuyerZone (see www .buyerzone .com

VOIP PAGE 38 Figure 1 . Typical VOIP and computer setup (Source : Federal Communications Commission

Figure 2 . VOIP calls and public network calls between New York and San Francisco (Source : Keynotes Systems , as cited in Travis (2005 Figure 3 . VOIP Layered Security Architecture Model (Source : Siemens Enterprise Communications … [banner_entry_footer]

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