Essay Title: 

Youth and Correction

March 20, 2016 | Author: | Posted in criminology, law

1 . Restorative justice paradigm focuses on the restoration of the victim and restoration of the offender to a law-abiding life . It not only looks at the past , it is deeply concerned with building a better society in the long run . In “Traditional and Contemporary Tribal Justice ” Melton (1998 ) agreed that numerous contemporary tribal communities practice “a dual justice system exists , one based on an American paradigm of justice and the other based on an indigenous paradigm ” The American justice paradigm could be described as an adversarial system and stands apart from most religious [banner_entry_middle]

beliefs . Crimes are viewed as actions against the state , with little attention to the needs of the victim or community The focus is on the defendant ‘s individual rights during adjudication Punishing the offender is generally governed by a retributive philosophy and removal from society . In contrast , tribal justice is based on a holistic philosophy and not easily divorced from the religious and spiritual realms of everyday life

Melton attempts to distill the characteristic elements of a number of diverse American tribal justice ideologies into an Indigenous Justice Paradigm . The holistic philosophy is the key element of this paradigm and supports a “circle of justice ” where “the center of the circle represents the underlying problems and issues that need to be resolved to attain peace and harmony for the individuals and the community (p 66 . Restorative justice stresses that offenders must be given an opportunity to correct their wrongdoings and redeem themselves . Since most offenders eventually are released , they likely will repeat their offenses if they are not given this chance . Then their victims , the community and the offenders themselves all will have to pay the price for the previous ineffective intervention . Thus , the corresponding values of restorative and reparative justice could be compatible to most offenses and has definitely a more positive effect on the side of the offenders for them to avoid recidivism since these traditional values reflect the importance of the victim and the community in restoring harmony

2 . Juvenile delinquency has always been linked with poverty and family disruptions . Snyder and Sickmund (2006 ,

. 7 ) cited a report that found low family income measured when the youth was age 8 predicted self-reported violence in the teenage years and conviction rates for violent offenses . In another example , poverty also exerts much influence on family disruption (e .g , marital separation , divorce , which in turn has a direct influence on juvenile violent crime rates . Thus , family disruption had a stronger influence on juvenile violence than adult violence and differential poverty levels are likely to influence juvenile crime trends Looking at the two tables , Hispanic and Black juveniles are most likely to commit delinquency because of their social status . In terms of juveniles of color having higher rates of contact with the police Walker , Pohn Delone (2004 ) suggested two reasons : First , youths tend to be out on the street more than adults , which is simply a matter of lifestyle related to the life cycle . Low-income juveniles are… [banner_entry_footer]

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